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1

Rewrite each argument in standard form. State the pattern of argument. Then state whether the argument is valid, cogent, or ill-formed.-a. If gas prices go up, then people will drive less. And gas prices will go up. As a result, people will drive less.

1. If gas prices go up, then people will drive less.
2. Gas prices will go up.
3. People will drive less.

Affirming the antecedent, Valid

2

Rewrite each argument in standard form. State the pattern of argument. Then state whether the argument is valid, cogent, or ill-formed.-b. Jones should get an A in that course. This is because he worked hard and everyone who worked hard in that course should get an A.

1. Everyone who worked hard in that course should get an A.
2. Jones worked hard in that course.
3. Jones should get an A in that course

1. All As are Bs
2. x is an A.
3. x is a B.

3

Rewrite each argument in standard form. State the pattern of argument. Then state whether the argument is valid, cogent, or ill-formed.-c. If you study hard, then you'll get an A. But you won't study hard, so you won't get an A.

1. If you study hard, then you'll get an A.
2. You won’t study hard.
3. You won’t get an A.
1. If you study hard, then you'll get an A.
2. You won’t study hard.
3. You won’t get an A.

Denying the antecedent, Invalid

Denying the antecedent, Invalid

4

Rewrite each argument in standard form. State the pattern of argument. Then state whether the argument is valid, cogent, or ill-formed.-d. Either we teach our children to work hard or they will be unable to compete on the job market. But we won't teach them to work hard. It follows that they will be unable to compete on the job market.

1. Either we teach our children to work hard or they will be unable to compete on the job market.
2. We won't teach them to work hard.
3. They will be unable to compete on the job market.

Elimination, Valid

5

The following paragraphs also present simple arguments but contain no indicator words. Rewrite each argument in standard form, using your best judgment about which statements are the premises and which are the conclusions. State the pattern of argument. Then state whether the reconstructed argument is valid, cogent, or ill-formed.- a. The conclusion of Smith's argument is true. It is a valid argument and all valid arguments have true conclusions.

1. Smith’s argument is a valid argument.
2. All valid arguments have true conclusions.
3. Smith’s argument has a true conclusion.

1. All As are Bs
2. x is an A.
3. x is a B.

Valid

6

The following paragraphs also present simple arguments but contain no indicator words. Rewrite each argument in standard form, using your best judgment about which statements are the premises and which are the conclusions. State the pattern of argument. Then state whether the reconstructed argument is valid, cogent, or ill-formed.- b. Anyone who goes bankrupt has no money. Donald Trump went bankrupt. Donald Trump has no money.

1. Donald Trump went bankrupt.
2. All people who go bankrupt have no money.
3. Donald Trump has no money.

1. All As are Bs
2. x is an A.
3. x is a B.

Valid


Cogent

7

The following paragraphs also present simple arguments but contain no indicator words. Rewrite each argument in standard form, using your best judgment about which statements are the premises and which are the conclusions. State the pattern of argument. Then state whether the reconstructed argument is valid, cogent, or ill-formed.- c. Most books have some pictures. The telephone book is a book. The telephone book has some pictures.

1. Most books have some pictures.
2. The telephone book is a book.
3. The telephone book has some pictures.

1. Most As are Bs.
2. x is an A.
3. x is a B

Cogent

8

The following paragraphs also present simple arguments but contain no indicator words. Rewrite each argument in standard form, using your best judgment about which statements are the premises and which are the conclusions. State the pattern of argument. Then state whether the reconstructed argument is valid, cogent, or ill-formed.- d. You'll like nectarines. Everyone who likes peaches also likes nectarines, and you like peaches.

1. Everyone who likes peaches also likes nectarines.
2. You like peaches.
3. You’ll like nectarines.

1. All As are Bs
2. x is an A.
3. x is a B.

Valid

9

Rewrite each argument in standard form, omitting any information that is not part of the argument and clarifying the statements that are not expressed clearly. State the pattern of the reconstructed argument. Then state whether the reconstructed arguments are valid, cogent, or ill-formed.- a. I oppose capital punishment because it might lead to the death of innocent people, and we shouldn't do anything that might lead to the death of innocent people.

1. Capital punishment might lead to the death of innocent people.
2. All things that lead to the death of innocent people are things we shouldn’t do.
3. We shouldn’t do (have) capital punishment.

1. All As are Bs
2. x is an A.
3. x is a B.

Valid

10

Rewrite each argument in standard form, omitting any information that is not part of the argument and clarifying the statements that are not expressed clearly. State the pattern of the reconstructed argument. Then state whether the reconstructed arguments are valid, cogent, or ill-formed.- b. I know that most Ryerson students drink beer. After all, most Ryerson students are male, and most males drink beer.


1. Most Ryerson students are male.
2. Most males drink beer.
3. Most Ryerson students drink beer.

1. Most As are Bs.
2. Most Bs are Cs.
3. Most As are Cs.

Ill-formed

11

Rewrite each argument in standard form, omitting any information that is not part of the argument and clarifying the statements that are not expressed clearly. State the pattern of the reconstructed argument. Then state whether the reconstructed arguments are valid, cogent, or ill-formed.-c. Smith is the murderer. After a long and difficult investigation, the police showed that either Smith or Jones did it, and I'm sure that it wasn't Jones.

1. Either Smith is the murder or Jones is the murderer.
2. It’s not the case that Jones is the murderer.
3. Smith is the murderer.

Elimination, Valid

12

Rewrite each argument in standard form, omitting any information that is not part of the argument and clarifying the statements that are not expressed clearly. State the pattern of the reconstructed argument. Then state whether the reconstructed arguments are valid, cogent, or ill-formed.- d. I realize that not everyone agrees with me, but I think that we'd be better off if we made kids go to school twelve months each year. Anything that will make kids learn more will make us better off, and making kids go to school twelve months each year will make them learn more. People who disagree are just afraid to make kids work hard.

1. All things that will make kids learn more are things that will make us better off.
2. Making kids go to school twelve months each year will make them learn more.
3. Making kids go to school twelve months each year will make us better off.

1. All As are Bs
2. x is an A.
3. x is a B.

Valid

13

a. If something is a baseball, then it is round.

All baseballs are round.

14

b. Anything that can crawl is either a snake or a worm.

All things that can crawl are either snakes or worms.

15

c. A person is a student only if the person is registered in some school.

All students are registered in some school.

16

d. If you are registered, then you are allowed to vote.

All people who registered are allowed to vote.

17

e. Every new day brings some surprises.

All new days bring some surprises.

18

f. You can never predict who will win a baseball game.

All baseball games are things you cannot predict the winner of.

19

g. Sometimes you can predict who will win a baseball game.

Some baseball games are things you can predict the winner of.

20

h. If you are a genius, then you can predict the winner of all baseball games.

All geniuses can predict the winner of all baseball games.

21

i. In most cases, honesty is the best policy. (Clue: Substitute for A in the standard form for "cases of acting honestly.")

Most cases of acting honestly are cases following the best policy.

22

j. Lying is always risky.

All times you lie are risky

23

k. If something is a universal generalization, then it is false.

All universal generalizations are false.

24

l. Whenever Jones says something, what he says is true.

All things Jones says are true

25

1. If you can't stand the heat, then you should get out of the kitchen.
2. You should get out of the kitchen.

1. If you can't stand the heat, then you should get out of the kitchen.
2. You can’t stand the heat.
3. You should get out of the kitchen.

26

1. Either I'll get an A in this course or I'll get an F.
2. I'll get an A in this course.

1. Either I'll get an A in this course or I'll get an F.
2. It’s not the case that I’ll get an F.
3. I'll get an A in this course.

27

1. Most overweight house sparrows fly poorly.
2. My pet bird flies poorly.

1. Most overweight house sparrows fly poorly.
2. My pet bird is an overweight house sparrow.
3. My pet bird flies poorly.

28

1. All birds have wings.
2. Rover is not a bird.

1. All birds have wings.
2. Rover does not have wings.
3. Rover is not a bird.

29

1. All birds have wings.
2. Rover has wings.

1. All birds have wings.
2. Rover is a bird.
3. Rover has wings.

30

1. If it rains, then the picnic will be cancelled.
2. If it rains, then we'll go to the movies.

1. If it rains, then the picnic will be cancelled.
2. If the picnic is cancelled, then we’ll go to the movies.
3. If it rains, then we'll go to the movies.