Identifying Argument Patterns Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Identifying Argument Patterns Deck (26)
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1

1.PorQ.
2. -P.
3. Q.

Argument by Elimination
Valid Sentential

2

1.IfPthenQ. 2. P.
3. Q.

Affirming the Antecedent
Valid Sentential

3

1.If P then Q.
2.If Q then R.
3.If P then R.

Hypothetical Syllogism
Valid Sentential

4

1. P.
2. Q.
3.P and Q.

Conjunction
Valid Sentential

5

1.If P then Q.
2. -Q.
3. -P.

Denying the Consequent
Valid Sentential

6

1.If P then Q.
2. If -Q then -P.

Contraposition
Valid Sentential

7

1.P and Q
2. P.

Simplification
Valid Sentential

8

1. - -P
2.P

Double Negation
Valid Sentential

9

1.P ifandonlyif Q.
2. -P.
3. -Q.

Equivalence
Valid Sentential

10

1. If P then Q.
2. -P
3. -Q.

Denying the Antecedent
Invalid Sentential

11

1. If P then Q.
2. Q.
3. P.

Affirming the Consequent
Invalid Sentential

12

1. All As are Bs.
2.x is an A.
3.x is a B.

Valid Predicate

13

1. All As are Bs.
2. All Bs are Cs.
3. All As are Cs.

Valid Predicate

14

1. All As are Bs.
2.x is not a B.
3.x is not an A.

Valid Predicate

15

1.No As are Bs.
2.x is an A.
3.x is not a B.

Valid Predicate

16

1. All As are Bs.
2. x is not an A.
3. x is not a B.

Invalid Predicate

17

1. All As are Bs.
2.xisaB.
3.xisanA.

Invalid Predicate

18

1. Most As are Bs.
2. x is an A.
3. x is a B.

Cogent

19

1.x is an A
2.x is a B
3. Most ABs are Cs.
4. x is a C

Cogent

20

1. Most As are Bs.
2. x is not an A.
3. x is not a B.

Ill Formed

21

1. Most As are Bs.
2. x is a B.
3. x is an A.

Ill Formed

22

Affirming the Antecedent Ex.

1. If the Prime Minister is at 24 Sussex Drive, then the Prime Minister is in Ottawa.
2. The Prime Minister is at 24 Sussex Drive.
3. The Prime Minister is in Ottawa.
Affirming the Antecedent
1. If P then Q. 2. P.
3. Q.

23

Denying the Consequent Ex

1. If the Prime Minister is at 24 Sussex Drive, then the Prime Minister is in Ottawa.
2. The Prime Minister is not in Ottawa.
3. Prime Minister is not at 24 Sussex Drive.
Denying the Consequent
1. If P then Q.
2. -Q.
3. -P.

24

Hypothetical Syllogism Ex

1. If the Prime Minister is at 24 Sussex Drive, then the Prime Minister is in Ottawa
2. If the Prime Minister is in Ottawa, then the Prime Minister is not on vacation.
3. If the Prime Minister is at 24 Sussex Drive, then the Prime Minister is not on vacation.
Hypothetical Syllogism
1. If P then Q. 2. If Q then R. 3. If P then R.

25

3 ways to test for validity:

1. Find a counterexample to the argument.
2. Find a counterexample to the argument’s pattern.
3. Check the list of argument patterns.

26

Define Cogency

CD2: An argument is cogent if and only if it is not valid but it follows a pattern such that all arguments following that pattern have a conclusion that is probably true if the premises are true.