Flashcards in AT 520 Other Topics Exam 1 Deck (23)
Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder
This diagnosis is used in order to address concerns about the potential for the overdiagnosis of and treatment for bipolar disorder in children. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder refers to the presentation of children with persistent irritability and frequent episodes of extreme behavioral dyscontrol. This is for children up to 12 years old.
Major Depressive Disorder
This represents the classic condition in the group of disorders. It is characterized by discrete episodes of at least 2 weeks' duration (although most episodes last considerably longer) involving clear-cut changes in affect, cognition, and neurovegetative functions and inter-episode remissions.
Persistent Depressive Disorder (Dysthymia)
This is a more chronic form of depression. It can be diagnosed when the mood disturbance continues for at least 2 years in adults or 1 year in children.
What are the common features of Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder and Persistent Depressive Disorder (Dysthymia)?
The common feature of all these disorders is the presence of sad, empty, or irritable mood, accompanied by somatic and cognitive changes that significantly affect the individual's capacity to function.
Bipolar I (Manic Episode)
Bipolar I disorder criteria represent the modern understanding of the classic manic-depressive disorder or affective psychosis described in the 19th century, differing from that classic description only to the extent that neither psychosis, nor the lifetime experience of a major depressive episode is a requirement. However, the vast majority of individuals whose symptoms meet the criteria for a fully syndromal manic episode, also experience major depressive episodes during the course of their lives.
Must meet the criteria for a manic episode
-Distinct period of abnormally and persistent increased goal-directed activity or energy, lasting at least 1 week and present most of the day, nearly everyday (or any duration if hospitalization is necessary).
-3 or more of the following symptoms
-Sufficiently severe to cause marked impairment.
-Not due to a substance or medical condition.
Bipolar II (Hypomanic & Depressive Episodes
Bipolar II disorder, requiring the lifetime experience of at least one episode of a major depression and at least one hypomanic episode, is no longer thought to be a “milder” condition than bipolar I disorder, largely because of the amount of time individuals with this condition spend in depression and because the instability of mood experienced by individuals with bipolar II disorder is typically accompanied by serious impairment in work and social functioning.
-Must meet criteria for current of past hypomanic episode and criteria for current or past major depressive episode.
Cyclothymic Disorder (Hypomanic & Depressive Symptoms)
The diagnosis of cyclothymic disorder is given to adults who experience at least 2 years (for children, a full year) of both hypomanic and depressive periods without ever fulfilling the criteria for an episode of mania, hypomania, or major depression.
Hays (2001) ADDRESSING Model of Diversity
Indigenous Heritage (Where your Born)
Nationality (The nation you are a citizen of)
Gender (how you identify, may or may not be your biological sex)
ORS 419B.010 Reporting Laws
Schools employees are mandated reporters of child abuse.
Biopsychosocial Model of Psyshology
Athletic Identity translate into "Who am I?"
Athletic Identity has language differences. These differences are used to state our identity and can signify ownership.
"I am a runner' for example is different than "I enjoy running"
"I am a football player" is different than "I enjoy playing football"
The latter is merely describing an activity that you do while the former, "I am", implies identity.
Two sides of Athletic Identity
1. Private Identity
Private and public identity are not opposite ends of the same scale, they are in fact closely aligned and this impacts our behavior, since according to role-theory we are likely to base our actions on how we like to see ourselves and how we like to be seen by others.
Essentially we rank the different identities we hold in a hierarchy according to their relative salience. The identity with the greatest salience will play out most frequency. Often when we don't understand another person's behavior it's most likely because their choice of identity has a different salience to ours. Salience influences the effort we put into a task, the behaviors we display and ultimately our performance. It also influences our self-esteem with the higher the salience the greater the impact on self-esteem -- for better or worse.
Private identity is concerned with how we see ourselves...usually described as being unavailable for public scrutiny --it includes our attitudes, beliefs, values, feelings and emotions.
Public identity is concerned with how we think others see us, or may judge us.
Psychological Response to Injury
The strength of identity is correlated to the reaction of the athlete.
Responses are not necessarily experienced in prescribed stages.
Three General categories of responses:
1. Injury-relevant information processing
2. Emotional upheaval and reactive behavior
3. Future outlook and coping
In reaction to injury, most athletes move through these general patterns; but the speed and ease with which they progress vary widely.
Injury-relevant Information processing
The injured athlete focuses on information related to the pain of the injury, awareness of the extent of injury, and questions about how the injury happened, and the individual recognizes the negative consequences or inconvenience.
Emotional Upheaval and Reactive Behavior
Once the athlete realizes that they are injured, they may become emotionally agitated; experience vacillating emotions; feel emotionally depleted; experience isolation and disconnection; and feel shock, disbelief, denial, or self-pity.
Future Outlook and Coping
The athlete accepts the injury and deals with it, initiates positive coping efforts, exhibits a good attitude and is optimistic, and is relieved to sense progress.
Impact of Athletic Injury
Some view injury as a disaster; some view it as an opportunity to display courage; others welcome it as a relief from the drudgery of practice, lack of playing time or losing season; and still others see it as an opportunity to focus on other aspects of life.
Impact of Injury on Athletic Identity
Commitment to the role of an athlete (narrow self-concept)
Exclusive athletic Identity
Sources of self-worth
5-13% of injured athletes experience psychological distress. ex.) Post-Injury depression/return to play anxiety.
Injured athletes with a unidimensional sense of self may experience a drop in self-esteem during separation from sport.
Danger for cycle developing
Low self-esteem, negative expectations, low effort, high anxiety, failure, self blame, lack of goal setting...
Other Reaction to Injury and Athletic ID
Identity Loss - loss of personal identity/self-concept
Fear and Anxiety - recovery, re-injury, loss of role on the team, social impact, scholarships.
Lack of Confidence - inability to physically perform
Performance Decrements - managing expectations; post-injury performance declines.
Includes 3 areas
Disruption to one area, causes disruption in the other areas. Physical disturbance (i.e. injury) causes problems with social support (no longer as involved with the team), and can cause emotional disturbance.