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A social process that occurs when rewards are given to people for how their performance compares with the performances of others during the same task or when participating in the same event.



A social process through which performance is evaluated and rewarded in terms of the collective achievement of a group of people working together to reach a particular goal.


Sherif and Sherif (1969)

Copmetition can be reduced through cooperative efforts to achieve superordinate goals.


Enhancing Cooperation: General principles of Cooperative Games

-Maximize participation
-Maximize opportunities to learn sport and movement skills
-Do not keep score
-Maximize opportunities for success
-Give Positive Feedback
-Provide opportunities for youngster to play different positions


Competitive means - Competitive ends

Competitive means - Competitive ends

The goal is to beat someone else or everyone else from the outset to the end. For example, King of the Mountatin, 100-yard dash


Cooperative Means - Competitive ends:

Cooperative Means - Competitive ends:

Participants cooperate within their group byt compete outside their group. For example, soccer, basketball.


Individual means - Individual ends:

Individual means - Individual ends:

One or more players pursue an individual goal without cooperative or competitive interaction. For example, calisthenics, cross-country skiing.


Cooperative means - individual ends:

Cooperative means - individual ends:

Individuals cooperate and help each other achieve their own goals. For example, helping each other individually improve.


Cooperative means - Cooperative ends

Cooperative means - Cooperative ends

Players cooperate with each other from the outset to the end. Everybody works toward a common goal, sharing the means as well as the ends.
For example, keeping a volleyball from hitting the ground.



Is the use of rewards and punishments that increase or decrease the likelihood of a similar response occurring in the future.


The Principles of Reinforcement

If doing something results in a good consequence (such as being rewarded), people tend to repeat the behavior to achieve additional positive reinforcement.

If doing something results in an unpleasant consequence (such as being punished), people tend not to repeat the behavior to avoid more negative consequences.


Why are the principles of reinforcement complex?

People react differently to the same reinforcement
People are unable to repeat desirable behaviors
People receive different reinforcers in different situations


Schedule of Reinforcement: Fixed Ratio

Is Reinforcement after a fixed or set number of responses.


Schedule of Reinforcement: Fixed Interval

Reinforcement after a fixed or set amount of time.


Schedule of Reinforcement: Variable Ratio

Reinforcement after a variable - sometimes average - number of responses, e.g. slot machines.


Schedule of Reinforcement: Variable Interval

Reinforcement after a variable amount of time.


Positive Approach

Focuses on rewarding appropriate behavior, which increase the likelihood of desirable responses occurring in the future.


Negative Approach

Focuses on punishing undesirable behaviors, which should lead to future redirection of these inappropriate behaviors.


What is a Group?

A group is two or more people who interact and exert mutual influence on each other and share the following characteristics:

A collective sense of identity.
Distinctive Roles
Structured Roles of communication
Group Norms


Group Roles

Involve behaviors required or expected of a person occupying a certain position.


Formal Roles

Are dictated by the nature and structure of the organization.


Informal Roles

Evolve from the group's dynamics or interactions among group members.


What are Norms?

Norms are shared group expectations about appropriate behavior. Norms define acceptable behavior as a member of the group.

norms are unwritten rules of behavior, but everyone seems to know them and the group will enforce the norms.


Group Structure

Both role clarity and role acceptance are critical for team success.

Role conflict exists when role occupant does not have sufficient ability, motivation, time, or understanding to achieve the goal.


Communication Keys

Communication is used for may purposes:
Problem Solving

All communication contains content (what is said) as well as relational information (how we felt about the persons's message).


Type of Communication

Interpersonal Communication ( at least two people in a meaningful exchange)

Nonverbal Communication

Intrapersonal communication (self-talk, the communication we have with ourselves).


Strategies for Improving Communication

Convey Rationales

Express Empathy not sympathy.

Use a communication style that is comfortable for you.

learn how to become more empathetic by placing yourself in the shoes of your athletes or students.

Use the positive approach when communicating.

Always acknowledge the greeting of others

Have an open-door policy for your students

Be consistent in administering discipline.


Sending Messages Effectivley

Make verbal messages clear and concise

Pick the right time and place to deliver verbal messages.

Enhance trust with the person receiving the message to ensure verbal messages are appropriately interpreted.


Non-Verbal Communication

Eye contact - where you are looking
Proximity - how close you are to pt.
Kinesics - body movements gestures
Paralanguistics (like nodding the head)
Facial Expression
Body Language - what your body is doing, posture.


Psychological Skills Training

PST refers to systematic and consistent practice of mental skills for the purpose of enhancing performance, increasing enjoyment, or achieving greater sport and exercise satisfaction.