ATI - Chapter 39 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ATI - Chapter 39 Deck (82)
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1

_____ provide energy for cellular metabolism, tissue maintenance and repair, organ function, growth and development, and physical acitivity.

nutrients

2

____, the most basic of all nutrients is crucial for body fluid and cellular functions.

water

3

_____ provide most of the body's energy and fiber.

carbohydrates

4

Each gram of carbohydrates produces ____ kcal.

4

5

_______ provide glucose, which burns completely and efficiently without end products to excrete.

glucose

6

Sources of ______ include whole grain breads, baked potatoes, brown rice, and other plant foods.

carbs

7

____ provide energy and vitamins.

fats

8

No more than ___% of caloric intake should be from fat.

35%

9

Each gram of fats produces ____ kcal.

9

10

Sources of _____ include olive oil, salmon, and egg yolks.

fats

11

____ contribute to the growth, maintenance, and repair of body tissues.

proteins

12

Each gram of protein produces ___ kcal.

4

13

Sources of complete proteins include beef, _____, and poultry.

whole milk

14

_____ are necessary for metabolism.

vitamins

15

the ______ vitamins are K, A, D, and E.

fat soluble

16

the ______ vitamins are B and C.

water soluble

17

_______ complete essential biochemical reactions in teh body (calcium, potassium, sodium, iron)

minerals

18

_____ is critical for cell function and replaces fluids the body loses through perspiration, elimination and respiration.

water

19

Religious and _____ practices guide food preparation and choices.

cultural

20

____ issues prevent some clients from buying foods that are high in protein, vitamins, and minerals.

financial

21

_____ decreases with illness, medications, pain depression, and unpleasant environmental stimuli.

appetite

22

______ with certain foods or familiarity with foods clients like help determine preferences.

negative experiences

23

______ such as as sedentary lifestyles, work schedules, and widespread access to less healthy foods contribute to obesity.

environmental factors

24

_____ and illness can affect the functional ability to prepare and eat food.

disease

25

_____ can alter taste and appetite and can interfere with the absorption of certain nutrients.

medications

26

____ affects nutritional requirements.

age

27

Newborns and infants (birth to 1 year) have ____ energy requirements.

high

28

Newborns and infants (birth to 1 year) should have solid food starting at ___ to ___ months of age.

4 to 6 months

29

Newborns and infants (birth to 1 year) should not have cow's milk or _____ for the first year.

honey

30

Breast milk (ideally) or formula should provide ____ of weight the first 6 months and _____ of weight the second 6 months.

108 kcal/kg

98 kcal/kg

31

Toddlers (12 months to 3 years) and preschoolers (3 to 6 years) need _____ calories per kg of weight than infants do.

fewer

32

Toddlers (12 months to 3 years) and preschoolers (3 to 6 years) need increased _____ from sources other than milk.

protein

33

Toddlers (12 months to 3 years) and preschoolers (3 to 6 years) need _____ and ______ which are important for bone health.

calcium and phosphate

34

With toddlers (12 months to 3 years) and preschoolers (3 to 6 years) ______ is more important than quantity.

nutrient density

35

School-age children (6- to 12 years) need supervision to consume adequate protein and vitamins _____ and ____.

A and C

36

School-age children (6- to 12 years) tend to eat foods high in carbs, fats, and _____.

salt.

37

School-age children (6- to 12 years) grow at slower and ______ rate, with a gradual decline in energy requirements.

steadier

38

Adolescents (12 to 20 years) metabolic demands are ____ and require more energy.

high

39

Adolescents (12 to 20 years) have high requirements for (6)

iron
calcium
protein
iodine
folic acid
vitamin B

40

______ of adolescents (12 to 20 years) dietary intake comes from snacks.

1/4th

41

_____ water consumption is important for active adolescents.

increased

42

Body image and ______, fast foods, peer pressure, and fad diets influence adolescents' diet.

appearance

43

With young adults (20 to 35 years) and middle adults (35 to 65) there is a _______ need for most nutrients (except during pregnancy).

decreased

44

Calcium and _____ are essential minerals for women 20 to 65 (young and middle adults).

iron

45

With young adults (20 to 35 years) and middle adults (35 to 65) ____ health is extremely is important.

oral

46

Older adults (over 65) have a ____ metabolic rate that requires fewer calories.

slower

47

With Older adults (over 65) ______ sensations diminish.

thirst

48

Older adults needs the ____ amount of most vitamins and minerals as younger adults.

same

49

______ is important with older adults and important for both men and women.

calcium

50

Many older adults require ______ that provide fiber and bulk to enhance gastrointestinal function.

carbs

51

______ is an eating disorder that results in significantly low body weight for gender, age, developmental level, and physical health.

anorexia nervosa

52

______ results from the fear of being fat or self perception of being fat.

anorexia nervosa

53

Consistent ______ of food intake or repeated behavior that prevents weight gain.

restricition

54

______ is a cycle of binge eating followed by purging (vomiting, using diuretics or laxatives, excercise, or fasting).

bulimia nervosa

55

Bulimia nervosa results in a lack of control during ____.

binges

56

______ is when there is an average of at least one cycle of binge eating and purging per week for at least 3 months.

Bulimia nervosa

57

______ is repeated episodes of binge eating .

binge-eating disorder

58

_______ result in feeling a loss of control when binge eating, followed by an emotional response such as guilt, shame, or depression.

binge-eating disorder

59

Binge-eating disorders do not use ______ behaviors, such as purging.

compensatory

60

Binge-eating episodes can range from 1 to more than _____ times per week.

14

61

Binge eating disorder clients are often _____.

overweight or obese

62

A BMI of 25 is the upper boundary of _____.

healthy weight

63

A BMI of 25 to 25.9 is considered _____.

overweight

64

A BMI of 30 or greater is considered _____.

obese

65

To calculate BMI you need the ____ and ____.

height and weight

66

To calculate BMI you need the ____ and ____ in metric measurements

height and weight

67

BMI equation

weight (kg) / height (m2) =

68

_____ measurements are used in assessing weight.

skinfold measurements

69

Laboratory values in relation to nutrition

cholesterol
triglycerides
homglobin
electrolytes
albumin
prealbumin
transferrin
lymphocyte count
nitrogen balance

70

Intake and Output assessment

Record I & O
Monitor I & O for clients who have fluid or electrolyte imbalances
Weight clients each day at the same time, after voiding, and while wearing the same type of clothes
If using bed scales, use the same amount of linen each day, and reset the scale to zero if possible

71

Expected Findings of Poor Nutrition

Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation
flaccid muscles
mental status change
loss of appetite
change in bowel pattern
spleen, liver enlargement
dry, brittle hair and nails
loss of subcutaneous fat
dry, scaly skin
inflammation, bleeding of gums
poor dental health
dry, dull eyes
enlarged thyroid
prominent protrusions over bony areas
weakness and fatigue
change in weight
poor posture

72

____ diets involve diets that leave little residue (clear fruit juices, gelatin, broth)

clear liquid

73

____ diets are involve clear liquids plus liquid dairy products, all juices, pureed vegetables.

full liquid

74

_____ diets involve clear and full liquids plus pureed meats, fruits and scrambled eggs.

pureed

75

______ diet is clear and full liquids plus diced or ground foods.

mechanical soft

76

______ diets involves foods that are low in fiber and easy to digest.

soft/low residue

77

____ diets involves whole grains, raw, and dried fruits.

high fiber

78

____ diets involve no added salt or 1 to 2 g of sodium.

low sodium

79

______ diets involve nor more than ____ mg/day of dietary cholesterol.

low cholesterol
300 mg

80

_____ diet involves a balanced intake of protein, fats, and carbs of about 1800 cals.

diabetic

81

_____ diet involves pureed food and thickened liquid.

dysphagia

82

_____ diet has no restrictions

regular