Flashcards in ATI - Chapter 39 Deck (82)
_____ provide energy for cellular metabolism, tissue maintenance and repair, organ function, growth and development, and physical acitivity.
____, the most basic of all nutrients is crucial for body fluid and cellular functions.
_____ provide most of the body's energy and fiber.
Each gram of carbohydrates produces ____ kcal.
_______ provide glucose, which burns completely and efficiently without end products to excrete.
Sources of ______ include whole grain breads, baked potatoes, brown rice, and other plant foods.
____ provide energy and vitamins.
No more than ___% of caloric intake should be from fat.
Each gram of fats produces ____ kcal.
Sources of _____ include olive oil, salmon, and egg yolks.
____ contribute to the growth, maintenance, and repair of body tissues.
Each gram of protein produces ___ kcal.
Sources of complete proteins include beef, _____, and poultry.
_____ are necessary for metabolism.
the ______ vitamins are K, A, D, and E.
the ______ vitamins are B and C.
_______ complete essential biochemical reactions in teh body (calcium, potassium, sodium, iron)
_____ is critical for cell function and replaces fluids the body loses through perspiration, elimination and respiration.
Religious and _____ practices guide food preparation and choices.
____ issues prevent some clients from buying foods that are high in protein, vitamins, and minerals.
_____ decreases with illness, medications, pain depression, and unpleasant environmental stimuli.
______ with certain foods or familiarity with foods clients like help determine preferences.
______ such as as sedentary lifestyles, work schedules, and widespread access to less healthy foods contribute to obesity.
_____ and illness can affect the functional ability to prepare and eat food.
_____ can alter taste and appetite and can interfere with the absorption of certain nutrients.
____ affects nutritional requirements.
Newborns and infants (birth to 1 year) have ____ energy requirements.
Newborns and infants (birth to 1 year) should have solid food starting at ___ to ___ months of age.
4 to 6 months
Newborns and infants (birth to 1 year) should not have cow's milk or _____ for the first year.
Breast milk (ideally) or formula should provide ____ of weight the first 6 months and _____ of weight the second 6 months.
Toddlers (12 months to 3 years) and preschoolers (3 to 6 years) need _____ calories per kg of weight than infants do.
Toddlers (12 months to 3 years) and preschoolers (3 to 6 years) need increased _____ from sources other than milk.
Toddlers (12 months to 3 years) and preschoolers (3 to 6 years) need _____ and ______ which are important for bone health.
calcium and phosphate
With toddlers (12 months to 3 years) and preschoolers (3 to 6 years) ______ is more important than quantity.
School-age children (6- to 12 years) need supervision to consume adequate protein and vitamins _____ and ____.
A and C
School-age children (6- to 12 years) tend to eat foods high in carbs, fats, and _____.
School-age children (6- to 12 years) grow at slower and ______ rate, with a gradual decline in energy requirements.
Adolescents (12 to 20 years) metabolic demands are ____ and require more energy.
Adolescents (12 to 20 years) have high requirements for (6)
______ of adolescents (12 to 20 years) dietary intake comes from snacks.
_____ water consumption is important for active adolescents.
Body image and ______, fast foods, peer pressure, and fad diets influence adolescents' diet.
With young adults (20 to 35 years) and middle adults (35 to 65) there is a _______ need for most nutrients (except during pregnancy).
Calcium and _____ are essential minerals for women 20 to 65 (young and middle adults).
With young adults (20 to 35 years) and middle adults (35 to 65) ____ health is extremely is important.
Older adults (over 65) have a ____ metabolic rate that requires fewer calories.
With Older adults (over 65) ______ sensations diminish.
Older adults needs the ____ amount of most vitamins and minerals as younger adults.
______ is important with older adults and important for both men and women.
Many older adults require ______ that provide fiber and bulk to enhance gastrointestinal function.
______ is an eating disorder that results in significantly low body weight for gender, age, developmental level, and physical health.
______ results from the fear of being fat or self perception of being fat.
Consistent ______ of food intake or repeated behavior that prevents weight gain.
______ is a cycle of binge eating followed by purging (vomiting, using diuretics or laxatives, excercise, or fasting).
Bulimia nervosa results in a lack of control during ____.
______ is when there is an average of at least one cycle of binge eating and purging per week for at least 3 months.
______ is repeated episodes of binge eating .
_______ result in feeling a loss of control when binge eating, followed by an emotional response such as guilt, shame, or depression.
Binge-eating disorders do not use ______ behaviors, such as purging.
Binge-eating episodes can range from 1 to more than _____ times per week.
Binge eating disorder clients are often _____.
overweight or obese
A BMI of 25 is the upper boundary of _____.
A BMI of 25 to 25.9 is considered _____.
A BMI of 30 or greater is considered _____.
To calculate BMI you need the ____ and ____.
height and weight
To calculate BMI you need the ____ and ____ in metric measurements
height and weight
weight (kg) / height (m2) =
_____ measurements are used in assessing weight.
Laboratory values in relation to nutrition
Intake and Output assessment
Record I & O
Monitor I & O for clients who have fluid or electrolyte imbalances
Weight clients each day at the same time, after voiding, and while wearing the same type of clothes
If using bed scales, use the same amount of linen each day, and reset the scale to zero if possible
Expected Findings of Poor Nutrition
Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation
mental status change
loss of appetite
change in bowel pattern
spleen, liver enlargement
dry, brittle hair and nails
loss of subcutaneous fat
dry, scaly skin
inflammation, bleeding of gums
poor dental health
dry, dull eyes
prominent protrusions over bony areas
weakness and fatigue
change in weight
____ diets involve diets that leave little residue (clear fruit juices, gelatin, broth)
____ diets are involve clear liquids plus liquid dairy products, all juices, pureed vegetables.
_____ diets involve clear and full liquids plus pureed meats, fruits and scrambled eggs.
______ diet is clear and full liquids plus diced or ground foods.
______ diets involves foods that are low in fiber and easy to digest.
____ diets involves whole grains, raw, and dried fruits.
____ diets involve no added salt or 1 to 2 g of sodium.
______ diets involve nor more than ____ mg/day of dietary cholesterol.
_____ diet involves a balanced intake of protein, fats, and carbs of about 1800 cals.
_____ diet involves pureed food and thickened liquid.