ATI - Nutrition Chapter 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ATI - Nutrition Chapter 2 Deck (36)
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1

______ is the process of consuming food by the mouth, and moving it through the digestive system.

ingestion

2

_____ is a systemic process that includes the breakdown and absorption of nutrients.

digestion

3

____ occurs as components of nutrients pass through the digestive system into the bloodstream and lymphatic system.

absorption

4

Medication absorption can be affected by ____ intake.

food

5

It is important for nurses to be aware of food and medication _____.

absorption

6

Nurses should assess ______ functioning to determine adequacy prior to medication administration.

liver and kidney

7

_____ is the sum of all chemical processes that occur on a cellular level to maintain homeostasis.

metabolism

8

_____ from food must enter a cell in order for metabolism to occur.

nutrients

9

Metabolism is compromised of two processes: _____ and _____.

catabolism and anabolism

10

___ is the breaking down of substances with the resultant release of energy.

catabolism

11

_____ is the use of energy to build or repair substances.

anabolism

12

_____ are metabolized to provide carbon dioxide, water, and adenosine tripohosphate (ATP).

Energy nutrients

13

Excess energy nutrients are stored, glucose is converted to ____ and stored in the liver and muscle tissue. Surplus glucose is converted to ____. Glycerol and fatty acids are reassembled into triglycerides and stored in adipose tissue, and amino acids make ______.

glycogen
fat
body proteins

14

The liver removes excess amino acids and uses the residue to form glucose or store it as _____.

fat

15

Body cells first use available ATP for ____ and repair, then use glycogen and stored fat.

growth

16

Metabolic rate refers to teh speed at which food energy is ____.

burned.

17

_____ refers to the amount of energy used in 24 hour for involuntary activities of the body, such as maintaining body temperature, heartbeat, ciculation and respirations. This rate is determined while at rest and following a 12 hour fast.

Basal metabolic rate (BMR)

18

_____ refers to the calories needed for involuntary activities of the body at rest. This rate does not consider the 12 hour fast criteria.

Resting metabolic rate (RMR)

19

BMR is affected by lean body mass and _______. Body surface area, age,and gender are also factors that contribute to BMR.

hormones

20

___ function tests can be used as indirect measure of BMR.

thyroid

21

____ causes an increase in metabolism, blood glucose levels, and protein catabolism.

acute stress

22

A major nutritional concern during acute stress is protein deficiency as a stress _____ break down protein at a very rapid rate.

hormones

23

Protein deficiency increases the risk of ______ from severe trauma or critical illness (skin breakdown, delayed wound healing, infections, organ failure, ulcers, impaired medication tolerance).

complications

24

Protein requirements may be increased to more than ___ g/kg of body weight, or up to 25% of total calories, depending on the client's age and prior nutrtitional status.

2 g/kg

25

Any ____ illness (surgery, extensive burns) increases the body's requirements for calories to meet the demands of an increased BMR.

catabolic

26

Disease and _____ also increase metabolic demands and can lead to starvation/death.

sepsis

27

Factors that increase BMR

lean, muscular body build
exposure to extreme cold
prolonged stress
rapid growth periods (infancy, puberty)
pregnancy
lactation
physical conditioning

28

Factors that decrease BMR

short, overweight body build
starvation/malnutrition
age older than 60

29

Factors that increase metabolism

fever
involuntary muscle tremors (shivering, parkinson's)
hyperthyroidism
cancer
cardiac failure
diabetes mellitus
burns
surgery/wound healing
HIV/AIDS

30

Factors that decrease metabolism

hypothyroidism

31

Medications that increase BMR

prednisone
epinephrine
levothyroxine
ephedrine sulfate

32

Medications that decrease BMR.

amitriptyline

33

____ balance refers to the difference betweent eh daily intake and excretion of nitrogen. It is also an indicator of tissue integrity.

nitrogen balance

34

A healthy adult experiencing a stable weight is in ________, also known as neutral nitrogen balance.

nitrogen equilibrium

35

_____ nitrogen balance indicates that the intake of nitrogen exceeds excretion. Specifically, the body builds more tissue than it breaks down. This normally occurs during periods of _____: infancy, childhood, adolescence, pregnancy, and lactation.

positive
growth

36

____ nitrogen balance indicates that the excretion of nitrogen exceeds intake. The individual is receiving insufficient protein, and the body is breaking down more tissue than it is building, as seen during periods of ______, trauma, aging, and malnutrition.

negative
illness