ATI - Nutrition Chapters 1-6? Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ATI - Nutrition Chapters 1-6? Deck (229)
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1

Nutrients absorbed in the diet determine to a large degree, the _____ of the body.

health

2

Deficiencies or _____ can contribute to a poor state of health.

excesses

3

______ nutrients are those that the body cannot manufacture, and the absence of _____ nutrients can cause deficiency diseases.

essential
essential

4

Components of nutritive sources

carbs
fiber
protein
lipids (fats)
vitamins
minerals
electrolytes
water

5

Carbohydrates, fats, and _____ are all energy-yielding nutrients.

proteins

6

_______ are developed by the Institute of Medicine's Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes.

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)

7

The _______ was replaced with the DRIs in the mid-1990s.

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDAs)

8

The DRIs are comprised of four reference values.

RDAs
Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)
Adequate Intake (AI)
Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)

9

All carbohydrates are organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and _____.

oxygen
CHO

10

The main function of ______ is to provide energy for the body.

carbs

11

The average minimum amount of carbs needed to fuel the brain is _____ a day.

130 g

12

Median carbohydrate intake is _____ a day in men aged 20 years and older and _____ in women in the same age range.

296 g - men
256 g - women

13

The acceptable macronutrient distribution range for carbs is ______ of calories.

45% to 65%

14

Carbs provide energy for ______ and help to regulate protein and fat metabolism.

cellular work

15

______ are essential for normal cardiac and CNS functioning.

Carbs

16

Carbohydrates are classified according to the number of ______ units making up their structure.

saccharide

17

simple cabohydrates

monosaccharides

18

simple carbohydrate examples

glucose, fructose, galactose

19

disaccharides

simple carbohydrates

20

examples of disaccharides

sucrose, lactose, maltose

21

complex carbhohyrates

polysaccharides

22

examples of polysaccharides

starch, fiber, and glycogen

23

The _____ converts fructose and galatose into glucose, which is then released in the bloodstream. This elevates _____ levels, which causes the release of insulin from the pancreas.

liver
blood glucose

24

With insulin production, glucose is moved out of the ______ into cells in order to meet energy needs.

bloodstream

25

The body digests ____ of starch within 1 to 4 hours after ingestion. Digestion occurs mainly in the ______ using pancreatic amylase to reduce complex carbs into disaccharides.

95%
small intestine

26

______ is the stored carbohydrate energy source found in the liver and muscles. It is a vital source of backup energy , but is only available in limited supply.

glycogen

27

To maintain expected glucose levels between meals, glucose is released through the breakdown of _____

liver glycogen

28

Digestible carbs provide ___ cal/g of energy.

4

29

Fiber is categorized as a ____.

carb

30

Dietary fiber is the substance in plant foods that is _______.

indigestible

31

Types of dietary fiber

pectin
gum
cellulose
oligosaccharides

32

Fiber is important for proper bowel elimination. It adds ___ to the feces and stimulates peristalsis to ease elimination

bulk

33

Studies show fiber helps to lower ______ and lessen the incidence of intestinal cancers.

cholesterol

34

Total fiber AI is ____ for women and _____ for men.

25 g/day - women
38 g/day - men

35

The function of ______ is to provide the basic energy for cells.

monosaccharides

36

The function of ______ is energy, it also aids in calcium and phosphorus absorption (lactose)

disaccharides

37

The function of _____ is energy storage and digestive aid.

polysaccharides

38

Galatose is found in ____.

milk

39

Glucose is found in ____.

corn syrup

40

Fructose is found in _____.

fruits

41

Sucrose is found in _____.

table sugar

42

Lactose is found in _____.

milk sugar

43

Maltose is found in _____.

malt sugar

44

Starches are found in ____, _____ and root vegetables.

grains and legumes

45

Fiber is found in ______, fruits, and vegetables.

grains

46

Proteins are provided by plant and ____ sources.

animal

47

______ are formed by linking amino acids in various combinations for specific use by the body.

proteins

48

There are three types of proteins, each obtained from the diet in various ways.

complete
incomplete
complementary

49

_____ proteins from animal sources and soy, contain sufficient amounts of all nine essential amino acids.

complete

50

______ proteins, generally from plant sources, contain all nine essential amino acids. However, one or more of the amino acids is not adequate for protein synthesis.

incomplete

51

______ proteins are food sources that are incomplete proteins eaten alone, but together are equivalent to a complete protein. It is not necessary to consume complementary proteins at the same time to form a complete protein; instead, consuming a variety of ______ proteins over the course of the day is sufficient.

complementary
complementary

52

Proteins have many metabolic functions (5)

tissue-building and maintenance
balance of nitrogen and water
backup energy
support of metabolic processes
-nitrogen balance
-transportation of nutrients, other vital substances
support of the immune system

53

Three main factors that influence the body's requirement for protein.

tissue growth needs
quality of the dietary protein
added needs due to illness

54

The RDA of protein for healthy adults is _____.

0.8 g/kg

55

Protein' acceptable macronutrient distribution range (AMDR) for adults is ________ of total calories.

10% to 35%

56

_______ can lead to protein energy malturition (PEM).

Underconsumption

57

Kwashiorkor and marasmus are two disorders cause by extreme __________. These serious disorders are caused by a lack of protein ingestion, or lack of protein metabolism.

PEM
Protein Energy Malnutrition

58

Vegan diets can lack vitamin ____ because it does not naturally occur in plants.

B12

59

Protein provides ____ cal/g of energy.

4

60

The chemical group of fats is called ____,

lipids

61

Fats (lipids) are available from many sources

dark meat
poultry skin
dairy foods
added oils (margarine, butter, shortening, oils, lard)

62

Fat is an _____ nutrient for the body.

essential

63

______ serves as a concentrated form of stored energy for the body and supplies important tissue needs.

Fat

64

Fat supplies energy for (6)

Hormone production
structural material for cell walls
protective padding for vital organs
insulation to maintain body temperature
covering for nerve fibers
aid in the absorption of fat soluble vitamins

65

Fats are divided into three categories:

triglycerides
phospholipids
sterols

66

Triglycerides are further comprised of _____, which include saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids.

fatty acids

67

_____ total 98% of fat in food.

triglycerides

68

Triglyerides combine with _____ to supply energy to the body, allow fat soluble vitamin transport, and form adipose tissue that protects internal organs.

glycerol

69

____ fatty acids are solid at room temperature, and are found primarily in animal sources

saturated fatty acids

70

______ fatty acids, including monosaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids are usually from plant sources and help reduce health risks.

unsaturated

71

Sources of ______ fatty acids include olives, canola oil, avocado, peanuts, and other nuts.

monosaturated

72

Sources of _______ fatty acids include corn, wheat germ, soybean, safflower, sunflower and fish.

polyunsaturated

73

_____ fatty acids, made from broken down fats, must be supplied by the diet.

essential

74

Essential fatty acids, including ______ and _____, are used to support blood clotting, blood pressure, inflammatory responses and many other metabolic processes.

omega 3 and omega 6

75

_______ ARE IMPORTANT TO CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURE AS WELL AS THE TRANSPORT OF FAT SOLUBLE SUBSTANCES ACROSS THE CELL MEMBRANE.

PHOSPHOLIPIDS

76

______ (cholesterol) are found in the tissues of animals of animals, and are not an essential nutrient because the liver is able to produce enough to meet needs.

sterols

77

If ______ is consumed in excess, it can build up in the tissues, causing congestion and increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease.

cholesterol

78

The AMDR for fats is approximately ______ of total calories.

20 to 35%

79

10% or less of total calories should come from _____ sources.

saturated

80

Cholesterol should be limited to ___ to ____ m/day.

200 to 300 mg/day

81

A diet high in fat is linked to cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and _______.

diabetes mellitus

82

Those that can have a diet high in fat includes children under the age of 2, who need a higher amount of fat to form ______.

brain tissue

83

A diet with less than 10% of fat cannot supply adequate amounts of essential fatty acids and results in a ______ state.

cachectic (wasting)

84

The majority of lipid metabolism occurs after fat reaches the small intestine, where the ______ secretes concentrated bile and acts as an emulsifier to break fat into smaller particles. At the same time the pancreas secretes pancreatic lipase, which breaks down fat. Intestinal cells absorb the majority of the end products of digestion, with some being excreted in the feces

gallbladder

85

_____ carry triglycerides to the cells.

VLDL

86

_____ carry cholesterol to the tissue cells.

LDL

87

____ remove excess cholesterol from the cells, and transport it to the liver.

HDL

88

Lipids provide ___ cal/g of energy and are the densest form of stored energy.

9 cal

89

There are two classes of vitamins.

water soluble
fat soluble

90

Water soluble vitamins

B and C

91

Fat soluble vitamins

KADE

92

_____ yield no usable energy for the body.

vitamins

93

____ aids in tissue building and metabolic reactions (healing, collagen formation, iron absorption, immune system function.)

vitamin c (abcorbic acid)

94

Vitamin _____ is found in citrus fruits (oranges, lemons), tomatoes, peppers, green leafy vegetables, and strawberries)

C

95

Stress and illness, as well as smoking, increases the need for _____.

vitamin C

96

Cigarette smokers are advised to increase Vitamin C intake by ____ mg/day due to increased oxidative stress and metabolic turnover.

35

97

Severe deficiency causes ______, a hemorrhagic disease with diffuse tissue bleeding, painful limbs/joints, weak bones, and swollen gums/loose teeth. While scurvy can be fatal, it can also be cured with moderate doses of vitamin C for several days.

scurvy

98

____ vitamins have many functions in cell metabolism. Each one has a varied duty.

B complex

99

Many partner with other B vitamins for ______ reactions.

metabolic

100

Most b vitamins affect energy, metabolism, and _____ function.

neurological

101

Sources for B vitamins almost always include green leafy vegetables and unprocessed or _______.

enriched grains

102

______ functions as a coenzyme in energy metabolism, promotes appetite, and assists with muscle actions through its role in nerve functioning.

Thiamin (B1)

103

Deficiency results in _________ (ataxia, confusion, anorexia, tachycardia) headache, weight loss, and fatigue.

beriberi

104

_______ are widespread in almost all plant and animal tissues, especially meats, grains, and legumes.

Food sources

105

______ works as a coenzyme to release energy from cells.

riboflavin (B2)

106

Deficiency of __________ results in cheilosis (manifestations include scales and cracks on lips and in corners of the mouth), smooth/swollen red tongue (also called glossitis), and dermatitis of the ears, nose, and mouth.

riboflavin (B2)

107

________ dietary sources include milk, meats, and dark leafy vegetables.

Riboflavin (B2)

108

______ aids in the metabolism of fats, glucose, and alcohol.

Niacin (B3)

109

Deficiency of _______ causes pellagra (manifestations include sun-sensitive skin lesions, and gastrointestinal and neurologica findings.

Niacin (B3)

110

_____ sources include meats, legumes, milk, whole grain and enriched breads and cereals.

Niacin B3

111

_______ is needed for cellular function and synthesis of hemoglobin, neurotransmitters, and niacin.

pyridoxine/Vitamin B6

112

_____ deficiency causes macrocytic anemia and CNS disturbances.

pyridoxine/Vitamin B6

113

A high intake of ______ supplements can cause sensory neuropathy.

pyridoxine/Vitamin B6

114

A widespread food source that includes meats, grains and legumes is ____.

pyridoxine/vitamin B6

115

_____ is involved in the metabolism of carbs, fats and proteins as part of coenzyme A

pantothenic acid

116

A deficiency of ______ is extremely rare, but results in generalized body system failure.

pantothenic acid

117

______ serves as a coenzyme used in fatty acid synthesis, amino acid metabolism, and the formation of glucose.

biotin

118

Deficiency of ____ is rare, but results in neurological findings (depression, fatigue) hair loss, and scaly red rash.

biotin

119

Widespread food sources of biotin include eggs, milk, and ____.

dark green veggies

120

_____ is required for hemoglobin and amino acid synthesis, new cell synthesis, and prevention of neural tube defects in utero. (folic acid in the synthetic form)

folate

121

_____ deficiency causes megalobastic anemia, CNS distrubances, and fetal neural tube defects (spina bifida, anencephaly). It is important that all women of child bearing age get an adequate amount of ____ due to neural tube formation occurring early in gestation, often before a woman knows she is pregnant.

folate
folate

122

Folate occurs naturally in a variety of foods including liver, dark green leafy vegetables, ______, and legumes.

orange juice

123

______ is necessary for folate activation and red blood cell maturation.

cobalamin (B12)

124

______ deficiency causes pernicious anemia and is seen mostly in strict vegans (B12 is found solely in food of animal origin), and those with the absence of intrinsic factor needed for the absorpbtion of B12.

cobalamin

125

Sources of ______ include meat, shellfish, eggs, and dairy products.

cobalamin (B12)

126

All _____ vitamins have the possibility for toxicity due to their ability to be stored in the body for long periods of time.

fat soluble

127

Absorption of fat-soluble vitamins is dependent on the body's ability to absorb _____. Fat digestion can be interrupted by any number of conditions, particularly those that affect the secretion of fat-converting enzymes, and conditions of the small intestine.

dietary fat

128

Clients who have cystic fibrosis, celiac disease, Chrohn's disease, or intestinal bypasses are at risk for ______ deficiencies.

fat soluble

129

Clients who have _______ should be careful not to take more than the daily recommendation of fat soluble vitamins, as excess is stored in the liver and adipose tissue.

liver disease

130

Major action of vitamin ____ is an antioxidant, tissue building, and iron absorption.

c

131

Deficiency of vitamin C can result in scurvy, decreased iron absorption, and ______.

bleeding gums

132

_______ major action is to produce muscle energy and energy for metabolism.

thiamin B1

133

_______ assists with releasing energy from cells.

riboflavin B2

134

Energy and protein metabolism and cellular metabolism is the major action of ______.

niacin B3

135

Vitamin _____ (retinol, beta-carotene) contributes to vision health, tissue strength and growth, and embryonic development.

A

136

Care should be taken when ______ administered to pregnant clients as some forms have teratogenic effects on the fetus.

vitamin A

137

________ deficiency results in vision changes, xerophthalmia (dryness and hardening of the cornea), GI disturbances, and hyperkeratosis.

vitamin A

138

Food sources for ______ include fatty fish, egg yolks, butter, cream, and dark yellow/orange fruits and vegetables (carrots, yams, etc)

vitamin A

139

_____ assists in the absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and aids in bone mineralization.

vitamin D

140

Sunlight enables the body to syntesize _____ in the skin.

vitamin D

141

_____ deficiency results in bone demineralization, and extreme deficiency results in rickets.

vitamin D

142

Too much vitamin D can result in ______.

hypercalcemia

143

Food sources that contain Vitamin D include fortified milk, fatty fisk, and _____.

eggs

144

Vitamin ____ is an antioxidant that helps to preserve lung and red blood cell membranes.

E

145

____ deficiency rare, but results in anemia and can cause edema and skin lesions in infants.

vitamin E

146

Food sources for _______ include vegetable oils and certain nuts.

vitamin E

147

Vitamin ____ assists in blood clotting and bone maintenance.

K

148

_____ deficiency results in increased bleeding time.

vitamin K

149

_______ used as an antidote for excess anticoagulants (warfarin).

vitamin K

150

Vitamin _____ is found in carrots, eggs, and dark green vegetables (spinach, broccoli, asparagus).

K

151

The major action of vitamin ____ includes normal vision, tissue strength, and growth and immune system function.

A

152

The major action of vitamin ____ includes maintaining serum calcium and phosphorus, aid in bone development.

D

153

The major action of vitamin ____ includes protecting vitamin A from oxidation.

E

154

The major action of vitamin ____ is essential for prothrombin synthesis, aids in bone metabolism.

K

155

______ are available in an abundance of food sources and are used at every cellular level for metabolic exchanges.

minerals

156

Minerals are divided into major and ______.

trace

157

_____ minerals occur in larger amounts (more than 5g) in the body, and 100 mg or more is required through dietary sources each day.

Major

158

The seven major minerals

calcium
phosphorus
sodium
potassium
magnesium
chloride
sulfur

159

_____ are electrically charges minerals that cause physiological reactions that maintain homeostasis. Major minerals include sodium, potassium, and chloride.

electrolytes

160

Major actions of _____ include maintaining fluid volume, allowing muscle contractions, and contributing to nerve impulses.

sodium

161

Major sources of sodium include table salt, added salts, and ______.

processed foods

162

______ deficiency results in muscle cramping, memory loss, and anorexia.

sodium

163

Findings of excess _____ result in fluid retention, hypertension, and disorientation.

sodium

164

In dealing with sodium monitor the level of consciousness, _______, and _______.

edema
blood pressure

165

Major actions of _____ include maintaining fluid volume inside cells, and muscle action.

potassium

166

Major sources of _______ include oranges, dried fruits, tomatoes, avocados, dried peas, meats, broccoli, bananas, dairy products, meats, and whole grains.

potassium

167

Deficiency of potassium can result in ______, muscle cramps, and confusion.

dysrhytmias

168

an excess of ______ can result in dysrhythmia, muscle weakness, irritability, confusion, and numbness in extremities.

potassium

169

Nursing consideration for ______ includes monitoring cardiac status and ECG, PO tabs irritate the GI system. Give with meals.

potassium

170

Major action of ____ is to assist with intracellular and extracelluar fluid balance and aids in digestion.

chloride

171

Major source of chloride is _____.

table salt

172

Chloride deficiency is rare and results in _______ and anorexia.

muscle cramps

173

If chloride is found in excess it will result in ____.

vomiting

174

With chloride the nursing consideration involves monitoring _____.

sodium levels

175

The major action of _____ involves bones/teeth formation, bp, blood clotting, and nerve transmission.

calcium

176

Major sources of calcium include dairy, broccoli, kale, grains, and ______.

egg yolks

177

Deficiency of _______ results in tetany, positive Chvostek's and Trousseau's signs, ECG changes, osteoporosis in adults, and poor growth in children.

calcium

178

Excess calcium can result in constipation, renal stones, lethargy and _______.

depressed deep-tendon reflexes

179

A nursing consideration for calcium is to monitor ECG and _______. Give PO tabs with vitamin D.

respiratory status

180

_______'s major function is bone formation, catalyst for many enzyme reactions, nerve/muscle function, and smooth muscle relaxation.

magnesium

181

Magnesium comes from green leafy vegetables, nuts, whole grains, and tuna, halibut, and _____.

chocolate

182

Deficiency of _______ involves weakness, dyrsrhythmias, vertigo, confusions, increased bp, and anorexia.

magnesium

183

Excess of ______ can result in diarrhea, nausea, muscle weakness, hypotension, bradycardia, and lethargy.

magnesium

184

A nursing consideration for magnesium is to use _____ precautions and monitor the level of consciousness and _____.

seizure
vital signs

185

Major actions of _____ include energy transfer of RNA/DNA, acid-base balance, bone and teeth formation.

phophorus

186

Major sources of ____ include diary, peas, meat, eggs, and legumes.

phosphorus

187

If you are deficient in phosphorus _____.

the findings are unknown

188

Excess ______ results in decreased serum calcium levels.

phosphorus

189

A nursing consideration for phosporus is to evaluate the use of ________ and the use of ______.

antacids (note type)
alcohol (alcohol impairs absoption)

190

Major action of sulfur is it is a component of vitamin structure and a byproduct of ________.

protein metabolism

191

Major source of sulfur is ____.

protein

192

A sulfur deficiency is only seen in severe _____.

protein malnourishment

193

Excess sulfur toxicity does not result in _____.

any health issues

194

_____ levels are not usually monitored.

sulfur

195

____ minerals also called micronutrients are required by the body in amounts of less than ____g and ____ mg or less is required through dietary sources each day.

trace
5 g
20 mg

196

The 9 trace elements

iron
iodine
zinc
copper
manganese
chromium
selenium
molybdenum
fluoride

197

_____ is used for synthesis of thyroxine, the thyroid hormone that helps regulate metabolism.

iodine

198

Iodine is taken up by the ____.

thyroid

199

When iodine is lacking, the thyroid gland _____, creating a goiter.

enlarges

200

Grown food sources for _____ vary widely and are dependent on the iodine content of the soil in which they were grown.

iodine

201

Seafood provides a good amount of ______.

iodine

202

Table salt in the US is fortified with _____, so deficiencies are not as prevalent.

iodine

203

The RDA for iodine is _____ mcg for adults.

150

204

____ is responsible for oxygen distribution to hemoglobin and myoblobin.

iron

205

The body recycles unused _____ from dying red blood cells and stores it for later use.

iron

206

_____ in food consists of two forms: heme iron found in meat, fish and poultry and ______ found in grains, legumes, and vegetables.

iron
nonheme iron

207

Iron supplements can cause constipation, nausea, vomitting, diarrhea, and teeth discoloration (liquid form). They can be taken with food to avert gastrointestinal symptoms, and nurses should encourage _______, _________, and a high-fiber diet.

fresh fruits
vegetables

208

Iron supplements that are unneeded can become ____.

iron

209

Intramuscular injections of iron are caustic to tissues and must be administered by _______.

z track method

210

Vitamin _____ increases the absorption of iron.

C

211

Females during the menstruating years, older infants and toddlers and pregnant women are at risk for _______.

iron deficiency anemia

212

_____ forms a bond with calcium and thus accumulates in calcified body tissue (bones and teeth)

fluoride

213

Water with fluoride added protects against _____.

dental cavities

214

____ is the most basic of nutrients.

water

215

The body can maintain itself for several weeks on its food stores of energy, but it cannot survive without _______ for more than a few days.

water/hydration

216

_____ makes up the largest portion of our total body weight and is crucial for all fluid and cellular functions.

water

217

____ balance is essential for optimum health and bodily function.

fluid

218

The balance of fluid is a dynamic process regulated by the release of ____.

hormones

219

Healthy adults lose approximately _______ of water daily through insensible losses (respirations, skin, fecal) and to get rid of metabolic wastes needs to excrete at least 500 mL of urine daily. Therefor the minimum daily amount of water intake needed is _____ mL.

1000 mL

1500 mL

220

Under normal conditions, the AI for adult fluid intake is _____ for men a day and _____ for women a day.

3L - men
2.2 L -women

221

Additional hydration can be required for athletes, persons with fever/illness (vomitting, diarrhea), and those in _______.

hot climate conditions

222

Young children and older adults _____ more quickly.

dehydrate

223

The greatest elimination is through the _____.

kidneys

224

Clients who cannot hold down fluid or must withhold fluids in preparation for a procedure may be hydrates with _______.

intravenous fluids

225

A balanced input:output ratio

1:1

226

Assessment for proper hydration should include skin trugor, mental status, orthostatic blood pressures, urine output and concnetration, and ________

moistness of mucous membranes

227

Thirst is a _____ sign of the need for hydration, especially older adults.

late

228

Some individuals can have an aversion to drinking water, and should be encouraged to explore other options (______, ________, ______, frozen treats, soups)

fresh fruits
fruit juices
flavored gelatin

229

Caffeinated drinks have a _____ effect and should not be substituted for other fluids.

diuretic