Flashcards in ATI - Nutrition Chapters 1-6? Deck (229)
Nutrients absorbed in the diet determine to a large degree, the _____ of the body.
Deficiencies or _____ can contribute to a poor state of health.
______ nutrients are those that the body cannot manufacture, and the absence of _____ nutrients can cause deficiency diseases.
Components of nutritive sources
Carbohydrates, fats, and _____ are all energy-yielding nutrients.
_______ are developed by the Institute of Medicine's Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes.
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)
The _______ was replaced with the DRIs in the mid-1990s.
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDAs)
The DRIs are comprised of four reference values.
Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)
Adequate Intake (AI)
Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)
All carbohydrates are organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and _____.
The main function of ______ is to provide energy for the body.
The average minimum amount of carbs needed to fuel the brain is _____ a day.
Median carbohydrate intake is _____ a day in men aged 20 years and older and _____ in women in the same age range.
296 g - men
256 g - women
The acceptable macronutrient distribution range for carbs is ______ of calories.
45% to 65%
Carbs provide energy for ______ and help to regulate protein and fat metabolism.
______ are essential for normal cardiac and CNS functioning.
Carbohydrates are classified according to the number of ______ units making up their structure.
simple carbohydrate examples
glucose, fructose, galactose
examples of disaccharides
sucrose, lactose, maltose
examples of polysaccharides
starch, fiber, and glycogen
The _____ converts fructose and galatose into glucose, which is then released in the bloodstream. This elevates _____ levels, which causes the release of insulin from the pancreas.
With insulin production, glucose is moved out of the ______ into cells in order to meet energy needs.
The body digests ____ of starch within 1 to 4 hours after ingestion. Digestion occurs mainly in the ______ using pancreatic amylase to reduce complex carbs into disaccharides.
______ is the stored carbohydrate energy source found in the liver and muscles. It is a vital source of backup energy , but is only available in limited supply.
To maintain expected glucose levels between meals, glucose is released through the breakdown of _____
Digestible carbs provide ___ cal/g of energy.
Fiber is categorized as a ____.
Dietary fiber is the substance in plant foods that is _______.
Types of dietary fiber
Fiber is important for proper bowel elimination. It adds ___ to the feces and stimulates peristalsis to ease elimination
Studies show fiber helps to lower ______ and lessen the incidence of intestinal cancers.
Total fiber AI is ____ for women and _____ for men.
25 g/day - women
38 g/day - men
The function of ______ is to provide the basic energy for cells.
The function of ______ is energy, it also aids in calcium and phosphorus absorption (lactose)
The function of _____ is energy storage and digestive aid.
Galatose is found in ____.
Glucose is found in ____.
Fructose is found in _____.
Sucrose is found in _____.
Lactose is found in _____.
Maltose is found in _____.
Starches are found in ____, _____ and root vegetables.
grains and legumes
Fiber is found in ______, fruits, and vegetables.
Proteins are provided by plant and ____ sources.
______ are formed by linking amino acids in various combinations for specific use by the body.
There are three types of proteins, each obtained from the diet in various ways.
_____ proteins from animal sources and soy, contain sufficient amounts of all nine essential amino acids.
______ proteins, generally from plant sources, contain all nine essential amino acids. However, one or more of the amino acids is not adequate for protein synthesis.
______ proteins are food sources that are incomplete proteins eaten alone, but together are equivalent to a complete protein. It is not necessary to consume complementary proteins at the same time to form a complete protein; instead, consuming a variety of ______ proteins over the course of the day is sufficient.
Proteins have many metabolic functions (5)
tissue-building and maintenance
balance of nitrogen and water
support of metabolic processes
-transportation of nutrients, other vital substances
support of the immune system
Three main factors that influence the body's requirement for protein.
tissue growth needs
quality of the dietary protein
added needs due to illness
The RDA of protein for healthy adults is _____.
Protein' acceptable macronutrient distribution range (AMDR) for adults is ________ of total calories.
10% to 35%
_______ can lead to protein energy malturition (PEM).
Kwashiorkor and marasmus are two disorders cause by extreme __________. These serious disorders are caused by a lack of protein ingestion, or lack of protein metabolism.
Protein Energy Malnutrition
Vegan diets can lack vitamin ____ because it does not naturally occur in plants.
Protein provides ____ cal/g of energy.
The chemical group of fats is called ____,
Fats (lipids) are available from many sources
added oils (margarine, butter, shortening, oils, lard)
Fat is an _____ nutrient for the body.
______ serves as a concentrated form of stored energy for the body and supplies important tissue needs.
Fat supplies energy for (6)
structural material for cell walls
protective padding for vital organs
insulation to maintain body temperature
covering for nerve fibers
aid in the absorption of fat soluble vitamins
Fats are divided into three categories:
Triglycerides are further comprised of _____, which include saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids.
_____ total 98% of fat in food.
Triglyerides combine with _____ to supply energy to the body, allow fat soluble vitamin transport, and form adipose tissue that protects internal organs.
____ fatty acids are solid at room temperature, and are found primarily in animal sources
saturated fatty acids
______ fatty acids, including monosaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids are usually from plant sources and help reduce health risks.
Sources of ______ fatty acids include olives, canola oil, avocado, peanuts, and other nuts.
Sources of _______ fatty acids include corn, wheat germ, soybean, safflower, sunflower and fish.
_____ fatty acids, made from broken down fats, must be supplied by the diet.
Essential fatty acids, including ______ and _____, are used to support blood clotting, blood pressure, inflammatory responses and many other metabolic processes.
omega 3 and omega 6
_______ ARE IMPORTANT TO CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURE AS WELL AS THE TRANSPORT OF FAT SOLUBLE SUBSTANCES ACROSS THE CELL MEMBRANE.
______ (cholesterol) are found in the tissues of animals of animals, and are not an essential nutrient because the liver is able to produce enough to meet needs.
If ______ is consumed in excess, it can build up in the tissues, causing congestion and increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease.
The AMDR for fats is approximately ______ of total calories.
20 to 35%
10% or less of total calories should come from _____ sources.
Cholesterol should be limited to ___ to ____ m/day.
200 to 300 mg/day
A diet high in fat is linked to cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and _______.
Those that can have a diet high in fat includes children under the age of 2, who need a higher amount of fat to form ______.
A diet with less than 10% of fat cannot supply adequate amounts of essential fatty acids and results in a ______ state.
The majority of lipid metabolism occurs after fat reaches the small intestine, where the ______ secretes concentrated bile and acts as an emulsifier to break fat into smaller particles. At the same time the pancreas secretes pancreatic lipase, which breaks down fat. Intestinal cells absorb the majority of the end products of digestion, with some being excreted in the feces
_____ carry triglycerides to the cells.
_____ carry cholesterol to the tissue cells.
____ remove excess cholesterol from the cells, and transport it to the liver.
Lipids provide ___ cal/g of energy and are the densest form of stored energy.
There are two classes of vitamins.
Water soluble vitamins
B and C
Fat soluble vitamins
_____ yield no usable energy for the body.
____ aids in tissue building and metabolic reactions (healing, collagen formation, iron absorption, immune system function.)
vitamin c (abcorbic acid)
Vitamin _____ is found in citrus fruits (oranges, lemons), tomatoes, peppers, green leafy vegetables, and strawberries)
Stress and illness, as well as smoking, increases the need for _____.
Cigarette smokers are advised to increase Vitamin C intake by ____ mg/day due to increased oxidative stress and metabolic turnover.
Severe deficiency causes ______, a hemorrhagic disease with diffuse tissue bleeding, painful limbs/joints, weak bones, and swollen gums/loose teeth. While scurvy can be fatal, it can also be cured with moderate doses of vitamin C for several days.
____ vitamins have many functions in cell metabolism. Each one has a varied duty.
Many partner with other B vitamins for ______ reactions.
Most b vitamins affect energy, metabolism, and _____ function.
Sources for B vitamins almost always include green leafy vegetables and unprocessed or _______.
______ functions as a coenzyme in energy metabolism, promotes appetite, and assists with muscle actions through its role in nerve functioning.
Deficiency results in _________ (ataxia, confusion, anorexia, tachycardia) headache, weight loss, and fatigue.
_______ are widespread in almost all plant and animal tissues, especially meats, grains, and legumes.
______ works as a coenzyme to release energy from cells.
Deficiency of __________ results in cheilosis (manifestations include scales and cracks on lips and in corners of the mouth), smooth/swollen red tongue (also called glossitis), and dermatitis of the ears, nose, and mouth.
________ dietary sources include milk, meats, and dark leafy vegetables.
______ aids in the metabolism of fats, glucose, and alcohol.
Deficiency of _______ causes pellagra (manifestations include sun-sensitive skin lesions, and gastrointestinal and neurologica findings.
_____ sources include meats, legumes, milk, whole grain and enriched breads and cereals.
_______ is needed for cellular function and synthesis of hemoglobin, neurotransmitters, and niacin.
_____ deficiency causes macrocytic anemia and CNS disturbances.
A high intake of ______ supplements can cause sensory neuropathy.
A widespread food source that includes meats, grains and legumes is ____.
_____ is involved in the metabolism of carbs, fats and proteins as part of coenzyme A
A deficiency of ______ is extremely rare, but results in generalized body system failure.
______ serves as a coenzyme used in fatty acid synthesis, amino acid metabolism, and the formation of glucose.
Deficiency of ____ is rare, but results in neurological findings (depression, fatigue) hair loss, and scaly red rash.
Widespread food sources of biotin include eggs, milk, and ____.
dark green veggies
_____ is required for hemoglobin and amino acid synthesis, new cell synthesis, and prevention of neural tube defects in utero. (folic acid in the synthetic form)
_____ deficiency causes megalobastic anemia, CNS distrubances, and fetal neural tube defects (spina bifida, anencephaly). It is important that all women of child bearing age get an adequate amount of ____ due to neural tube formation occurring early in gestation, often before a woman knows she is pregnant.
Folate occurs naturally in a variety of foods including liver, dark green leafy vegetables, ______, and legumes.
______ is necessary for folate activation and red blood cell maturation.
______ deficiency causes pernicious anemia and is seen mostly in strict vegans (B12 is found solely in food of animal origin), and those with the absence of intrinsic factor needed for the absorpbtion of B12.
Sources of ______ include meat, shellfish, eggs, and dairy products.
All _____ vitamins have the possibility for toxicity due to their ability to be stored in the body for long periods of time.
Absorption of fat-soluble vitamins is dependent on the body's ability to absorb _____. Fat digestion can be interrupted by any number of conditions, particularly those that affect the secretion of fat-converting enzymes, and conditions of the small intestine.
Clients who have cystic fibrosis, celiac disease, Chrohn's disease, or intestinal bypasses are at risk for ______ deficiencies.
Clients who have _______ should be careful not to take more than the daily recommendation of fat soluble vitamins, as excess is stored in the liver and adipose tissue.
Major action of vitamin ____ is an antioxidant, tissue building, and iron absorption.
Deficiency of vitamin C can result in scurvy, decreased iron absorption, and ______.
_______ major action is to produce muscle energy and energy for metabolism.
_______ assists with releasing energy from cells.
Energy and protein metabolism and cellular metabolism is the major action of ______.
Vitamin _____ (retinol, beta-carotene) contributes to vision health, tissue strength and growth, and embryonic development.
Care should be taken when ______ administered to pregnant clients as some forms have teratogenic effects on the fetus.
________ deficiency results in vision changes, xerophthalmia (dryness and hardening of the cornea), GI disturbances, and hyperkeratosis.
Food sources for ______ include fatty fish, egg yolks, butter, cream, and dark yellow/orange fruits and vegetables (carrots, yams, etc)
_____ assists in the absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and aids in bone mineralization.
Sunlight enables the body to syntesize _____ in the skin.
_____ deficiency results in bone demineralization, and extreme deficiency results in rickets.
Too much vitamin D can result in ______.
Food sources that contain Vitamin D include fortified milk, fatty fisk, and _____.
Vitamin ____ is an antioxidant that helps to preserve lung and red blood cell membranes.
____ deficiency rare, but results in anemia and can cause edema and skin lesions in infants.
Food sources for _______ include vegetable oils and certain nuts.
Vitamin ____ assists in blood clotting and bone maintenance.
_____ deficiency results in increased bleeding time.
_______ used as an antidote for excess anticoagulants (warfarin).
Vitamin _____ is found in carrots, eggs, and dark green vegetables (spinach, broccoli, asparagus).
The major action of vitamin ____ includes normal vision, tissue strength, and growth and immune system function.
The major action of vitamin ____ includes maintaining serum calcium and phosphorus, aid in bone development.
The major action of vitamin ____ includes protecting vitamin A from oxidation.
The major action of vitamin ____ is essential for prothrombin synthesis, aids in bone metabolism.
______ are available in an abundance of food sources and are used at every cellular level for metabolic exchanges.
Minerals are divided into major and ______.
_____ minerals occur in larger amounts (more than 5g) in the body, and 100 mg or more is required through dietary sources each day.
The seven major minerals
_____ are electrically charges minerals that cause physiological reactions that maintain homeostasis. Major minerals include sodium, potassium, and chloride.
Major actions of _____ include maintaining fluid volume, allowing muscle contractions, and contributing to nerve impulses.
Major sources of sodium include table salt, added salts, and ______.
______ deficiency results in muscle cramping, memory loss, and anorexia.
Findings of excess _____ result in fluid retention, hypertension, and disorientation.
In dealing with sodium monitor the level of consciousness, _______, and _______.
Major actions of _____ include maintaining fluid volume inside cells, and muscle action.
Major sources of _______ include oranges, dried fruits, tomatoes, avocados, dried peas, meats, broccoli, bananas, dairy products, meats, and whole grains.
Deficiency of potassium can result in ______, muscle cramps, and confusion.
an excess of ______ can result in dysrhythmia, muscle weakness, irritability, confusion, and numbness in extremities.
Nursing consideration for ______ includes monitoring cardiac status and ECG, PO tabs irritate the GI system. Give with meals.
Major action of ____ is to assist with intracellular and extracelluar fluid balance and aids in digestion.
Major source of chloride is _____.
Chloride deficiency is rare and results in _______ and anorexia.
If chloride is found in excess it will result in ____.
With chloride the nursing consideration involves monitoring _____.
The major action of _____ involves bones/teeth formation, bp, blood clotting, and nerve transmission.
Major sources of calcium include dairy, broccoli, kale, grains, and ______.
Deficiency of _______ results in tetany, positive Chvostek's and Trousseau's signs, ECG changes, osteoporosis in adults, and poor growth in children.
Excess calcium can result in constipation, renal stones, lethargy and _______.
depressed deep-tendon reflexes
A nursing consideration for calcium is to monitor ECG and _______. Give PO tabs with vitamin D.
_______'s major function is bone formation, catalyst for many enzyme reactions, nerve/muscle function, and smooth muscle relaxation.
Magnesium comes from green leafy vegetables, nuts, whole grains, and tuna, halibut, and _____.
Deficiency of _______ involves weakness, dyrsrhythmias, vertigo, confusions, increased bp, and anorexia.
Excess of ______ can result in diarrhea, nausea, muscle weakness, hypotension, bradycardia, and lethargy.
A nursing consideration for magnesium is to use _____ precautions and monitor the level of consciousness and _____.
Major actions of _____ include energy transfer of RNA/DNA, acid-base balance, bone and teeth formation.
Major sources of ____ include diary, peas, meat, eggs, and legumes.
If you are deficient in phosphorus _____.
the findings are unknown
Excess ______ results in decreased serum calcium levels.
A nursing consideration for phosporus is to evaluate the use of ________ and the use of ______.
antacids (note type)
alcohol (alcohol impairs absoption)
Major action of sulfur is it is a component of vitamin structure and a byproduct of ________.
Major source of sulfur is ____.
A sulfur deficiency is only seen in severe _____.
Excess sulfur toxicity does not result in _____.
any health issues
_____ levels are not usually monitored.
____ minerals also called micronutrients are required by the body in amounts of less than ____g and ____ mg or less is required through dietary sources each day.
The 9 trace elements
_____ is used for synthesis of thyroxine, the thyroid hormone that helps regulate metabolism.
Iodine is taken up by the ____.
When iodine is lacking, the thyroid gland _____, creating a goiter.
Grown food sources for _____ vary widely and are dependent on the iodine content of the soil in which they were grown.
Seafood provides a good amount of ______.
Table salt in the US is fortified with _____, so deficiencies are not as prevalent.
The RDA for iodine is _____ mcg for adults.
____ is responsible for oxygen distribution to hemoglobin and myoblobin.
The body recycles unused _____ from dying red blood cells and stores it for later use.
_____ in food consists of two forms: heme iron found in meat, fish and poultry and ______ found in grains, legumes, and vegetables.
Iron supplements can cause constipation, nausea, vomitting, diarrhea, and teeth discoloration (liquid form). They can be taken with food to avert gastrointestinal symptoms, and nurses should encourage _______, _________, and a high-fiber diet.
Iron supplements that are unneeded can become ____.
Intramuscular injections of iron are caustic to tissues and must be administered by _______.
z track method
Vitamin _____ increases the absorption of iron.
Females during the menstruating years, older infants and toddlers and pregnant women are at risk for _______.
iron deficiency anemia
_____ forms a bond with calcium and thus accumulates in calcified body tissue (bones and teeth)
Water with fluoride added protects against _____.
____ is the most basic of nutrients.
The body can maintain itself for several weeks on its food stores of energy, but it cannot survive without _______ for more than a few days.
_____ makes up the largest portion of our total body weight and is crucial for all fluid and cellular functions.
____ balance is essential for optimum health and bodily function.
The balance of fluid is a dynamic process regulated by the release of ____.
Healthy adults lose approximately _______ of water daily through insensible losses (respirations, skin, fecal) and to get rid of metabolic wastes needs to excrete at least 500 mL of urine daily. Therefor the minimum daily amount of water intake needed is _____ mL.
Under normal conditions, the AI for adult fluid intake is _____ for men a day and _____ for women a day.
3L - men
2.2 L -women
Additional hydration can be required for athletes, persons with fever/illness (vomitting, diarrhea), and those in _______.
hot climate conditions
Young children and older adults _____ more quickly.
The greatest elimination is through the _____.
Clients who cannot hold down fluid or must withhold fluids in preparation for a procedure may be hydrates with _______.
A balanced input:output ratio
Assessment for proper hydration should include skin trugor, mental status, orthostatic blood pressures, urine output and concnetration, and ________
moistness of mucous membranes
Thirst is a _____ sign of the need for hydration, especially older adults.
Some individuals can have an aversion to drinking water, and should be encouraged to explore other options (______, ________, ______, frozen treats, soups)