ATI Unit 2 - Musculskeletal Disorders (Josh) Flashcards Preview

Peds ATI & Final (Josh) > ATI Unit 2 - Musculskeletal Disorders (Josh) > Flashcards

Flashcards in ATI Unit 2 - Musculskeletal Disorders (Josh) Deck (41):
1

Types of Fractures:

bone fragments are separated

Complete

2

Ortalini Test?

Barlow Test?

Trendelenberg Test?

Infant Test for DDH
- Ortalini Test abducts hip (positive if hip is reduced and means DDH)

- Barlow Test adducts hip (positive if hip is dislocated and means DDH)


Child Test for DDH
- Trendelenberg Sign (while bearing weight on affected side, the pelvis tilts downward)

3

Types of Fractures:

bone fragments are attached

Incomplete

4

Types of Fractures:

fracture results in injury to other organs

Complcated

5

Why elevate the cast the first 24-48 hrs?

elevate above heart level to prevent swelling

- also apply ice first 24 hrs to prevent swelling

6

Types of Fractures:

break is diagonal across the bone

Oblique

7

Why do an eye examination w/ Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis?

diagnoses uveitis (inflammation of middle eye)

JIA increases risk for uveitis

8

Back curve needs to be at least --- degrees for diagnosis of scoliosis.

10

mile curves less than 25o are monitored

9

Kernicterus in the neonate can cause Cerebral Palsy. What causes Kernicterus?

high levels of bilirubin

10

What is DDH?

Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip

- variety of disorders resulting in abnormal development of the hip structures

11

Why are respiratory infections common w/ Down's Syndrome?

decreased muscle tone and poor drainage of mucous b/c of hypotonicity and associated underdeveloped nasal bone

12

What is Chorioamnionitis?

risk factor for CP

Chorioamnionitis also known as intra-amniotic infection (IAI) is an inflammation of the fetal membranes (amnion and chorion) due to a bacterial infection. It typically results from bacteria ascending into the uterus from the vagina and is most often associated with prolonged labor.

13

S/S of Cerebral Palsy

Persistent primitive reflexes

Gagging/Choking w/ feeding

Tongue thrust

Poor head control

Rigid posture and extremities

Asymmetric crawl

Hyerreflexia

14

S/S of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

Joint swelling, warmth, redness (worse in AM and after naps)

Limited mobility

Fever / Rash

Limp in morning

Enlarged Lymph nodes

Delayed growth

15

Meds for JIA

NSAIDS
- ibuprofen
- naproxen
- tolmetin

Methotrexate (DMARD)

Corticosteroids (only for life-threatening complications)
- eye solution, oral, IV

Etanercept (TNF-a blocker)
- if methotrexate is not working

16

When is spinal fusion used for Scoliosis?

curvature greater than 45o

- get self-donated blood before surgery

17

Medications for Cerebral Palsy

Baclofen (muscle relaxer)
- administer orally or entrathecally w/ specialized, surgically implanted pump

Diazepam (decreases muscle spasms)
- older children

Botulinum Toxin (reduces spasticity)
- used in lower extremities
- 24-72 hrs to work
- peak of 2 weeks
- lasts 3-6 mths

18

Lab tests for DMD

Serum Polymerase Chain Reacion (PCR)

Creatinine Kinase (elevated)

19

-- is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease affecting joints and other tissues.

Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

20

---is a group of inherited disorders w/ progressive degeneration of symmetric skeletal muscle groups.

Muscular Dystrophy (MD)

21

Meds for Osteogensis Imperfecta

Pamidronate (increases bone density)

- monitor for hypkalemia, hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, general malaise

22

S/S of Osteogenesis Imperfecta

multiple bone fractures

BLUE SCLERA

EARLY HEARING LOSS

bowed legs

kyphosis (hunch back)

scoliosis

23

What is Ostemyelitis?

infection within the bone secondary to a bacterial infection from an outside source

24

Compartment Syndrome S/S

increased pain that is unrelieved w/ elevation or analgesics

intense pain when passively moved

paresthesia

pulselessness

inability to move digits

warm digits w/ skin that is tight and shiny

pallor

25

Why are mucous membranes so dry w/ Down's Syndrome?

constant mouth breathing

- rinse w/ water after meals and periodically thu day

26

A child presents w/ persistent priminitive reflexes like Moro and Tonic Neck. Which dx?

Cerebral Palsy

27

When do respiratory and cardiac difficulties start w/ DMD?

age 20

28

Types of Cerebral Palsy

Spastic (Pyramidal)

Dyskinetic (Nonspastic, Extrapyramidal)

Ataxic (Nonspastic, Extrapyramidal)

29

Types of Fractures:

fracture occurs w/ open wound and bone protruding

Open or Compound

30

Types of Fractures

bone is bent no more than 45o

Plastic Deformation (bend)

31

Types of Fractures:

break is straight across the bone

Transverse

32

Before symptoms of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis are detected, what can be found in the lab?

Anticyclic Citrullinated Peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies

33

Types of Fractures:

incomplete fracture of bone

Greenstick

34

Types of Fractures:

tiny cracks in bone

Stress

35

Types of Fractures:

fracture occurs w/out skin break

Closed or Simple

36

Types of Fractures:

break spirals around the bone

Spiral

37

What is the most common form of MD?

Duchenne Muscular Distrophy (DMD)
- lifespan only into early adulthood

38

What is Cerebral Palsy?

a nonprogressive impairment of motor function, especially of muscle control, coordination, and posture

39

Types of Fractures:

injury to end of the long bone on growth plate

Growth Plate

40

Treatment for Clubfoot?

serious of casting started shortly after birth and continuing until maximum correction is accomplished

41

Types of Fractures:

compression of bone resulting in a bulge or raised area at the fracture site

Buckle (torus)