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Flashcards in Peds Final Blueprint 1 Deck (83):
1

What is PKU Test?

Phenylketonuria Test

measures if baby has enzyme to use phenylalanine in body. Phenylalanine is an amino acid that is needed for normal growth and development

2

What surgery for Clubfoot?

percutaneous heel cord tenotomy

3

Hypoglcyemia or Hyperglycemia?

deep, rapid kussmaul respirations

Hyperglycemia

4

Decreased BP in lower limbs may be a sign of ---

coarctation of the artery

- check BP in all four extremeties

5

Clubfoot:

Eversion of feet(bending outward)

Talipes Valgus

6

When would a Halo Vest be used?

vertebral fracture w/out neurological deficit

- permits earlier ambulation

7

S/S of Tet Spells?

Peripheral dilation

Increased HR

Decerased diastolic filling time

Blood flows from RIGHT TO LEFT---TETRALOGY OF FALLOT (Path of least resistance)

8

Hypoglycemia is glucose of ---

Hyperglycemia is glucose of ---

250

9

Best exercise for JIA kids?

swimming

though they can do most activities

10

What is the usual organism for UTI?

E coli

11

--- is the most common heart defect in children.

Ventricular Septal Defect

12

Tetralogy of Fallot?

heart defect that causes a right to left shunt of blood


***squatting!!
- an unconscious means of relieving hypoxia

13

Clubfoot:

Inversion of feet

Talipes varus

14

What does HgA1c measure?

3-mth avg of plasma glucose concentration

15

What are the screening tests for Scoliosis?

Cobb technique - degree of curvature

Risser Scale - skeletal maturity

Measure truncal rotation

16

Heart defects w/ decreased pulmonary blood flow.

Tetralogy of Fallot

Tricuspid Atresia

17

Which cardiac defects result in obstruction of blood flow?

Coarcation of artery

Aortic Stenosis

Pulmonic Stenosis

18

When sick, how often should we monitor blood glucose and ketones in urine?

q 3 hrs

19

Exopthalmos is a clinical manifestation of ---

Graves Disease

20

Poor appetite, FTT, and frequent urination are S/S of ---

UTI

21

Hypoglcyemia or Hyperglycemia?

Double Vision

Hypoglycemia

Hyper has blurred vision

22

Hypoglcyemia or Hyperglycemia?

Rapid onset

Hypoglycemia is rapid

Hyper is slow

23

In ---, alterations in glomerular membrane allow proteins (albumin) to pass into urine.

Nephrotic Syndrome

24

Clinical manifestations of Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome?

Weight gain / edema (facial, ankles, periorbital)

Ascites

Anorexia, diarrhea, lethargy

Decreased frothy urine

25

What are normal HgA1c values for a child w/ diabetes?

6.5-8% but we won't to stay

26

Treat hypoglycemia with --- of simple carbs.

10-15 g

- milk
- soda
- T of sugar

27

How is Juvenile Idiopathic Arthitis treated?

PT

Splinting at night

Warm baths / packs on joints

NSAIDs, DMARDs, corticosteroids

28

Facial features for Down's Syndrome

Oblique palpebral fissures (upward, outward slant) of the eyes

Iris speckled “Brushfield spots”

Flat nasal bridge (Saddle nose)

Large protruding tongue

Low set ears

Short broad neck

29

Which cardiac defects result in increased pulmonary blood flow?

Ventricular Septal Defect

Atrial Septal Defect

Patent Ductus Arteriosis

30

What is the significance of a blue hue to the sclera in the newborn assessment?

Osteogenesis Imperfecta

The blue-gray color of the sclera is due to the underlying choroidal veins which show through. This is due to the sclera being thinner than normal because the defective Type I collagen is not forming correctly

31

--- is caused by disrupted blood flow in the femoral head, resulting in necrosis.

Legg Calve Perthes

32

Hypokalemia --- Digoxin toxicity.

potentiates

***serum potassium

33

--- is narrowing of aortic valve and causes which side of heart to enlarge?

Aortic Stenosis

- causes left ventricular hypertrophy

34

Normal urine should be negative for ---

protein

35

What are the warning signs for Acute Compartment Syndrome?

Pain

Pressure

Paresthesia (numbness)

Paralysis

Pulselessness

36

What is the onset of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy?

3-7 yrs old

37

Safe Digoxin Range

0.8-2.0

38

Scoliosis affects the spine. What else does it affect?

ribs

39

Best position to increase oxygenation during Tet Spell?

knee to chest

40

S/S of Nephrotic Syndrome

elvated protein in urine

decreased serum protein (6.1-7.9)

elevated serum lipid level

normal potassium level

41

What is Gower's Sign?

unsteady gait w/ a waddle

***it is a sign of MD

42

Clubfoot:

Toes are facing inward lower than heel

Talipes Equinovarus

43

What affect does exercise have on child w/ diabetes?

decreases need for insulin

***snack 30 mins before to prevent hypoglycemia

44

What is the Pavlik Harness?

treatment for DDH

- keeps hips in place
- adjust q 1-2 weeks
- wear for 12 wks

45

What are the 4 types of clubfoot?

Talipes Varus

Talipes Valgus

Talipes Calcaneus

Talipes Equniovarus

46

What is the most accurate lab for diabetes?

HgA1c

- glycated Hgb
- can't be 'faked' last minute for a good reading

47

Failure to smile and poor head control at 3 months are a warning sign for ---

Cerebral Palsy

48

What is MCNS?

Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome

- most common form of Nephrotic Syndrome

49

Blue sclera and Hearing Loss are S/S of --

Osteogenesis Imperfecta

50

Graves Disease leads to ---

Hyperthyroidism

51

What will you listen for w/ Ventricular Septal Defect?

loud, harsh murmur on left sternal border

52

How long does somatropin treatment last?

until epiphyseal closure

53

Brain abscesses are more common in --- than any other Congenital Heart Disease.

Tetrology of Fallot

54

Long term problems w/ Cerebral Palsy?


Seizures
Drooling
Difficulty feeding / speech
Risk for aspiration
Orthopedic complications –hip dislocation/scoliosis
Constipation
Dental caries

Gingivitis
Nystagmus
Hearing Loss
Latex allergy has also been reported in children with CP
Intellectual Impairment (70% normal)
ADHD

55

Types of DDH?

Acetabular Dysplasia (delay in acetabular development)

Subluxation (incomplete dislocation of hip)

Dislocation (femoral head does not have contact w/ acetabulum)

56

Clubfoot:

Dorsiflexion (toes higher than heels)

Talipes Calcaneus

57

S/S of Fractured Femur

Crepitus

Edema/Swelling

Pain

Ecchymosis

58

Maternal chorioamnionitis increases risk for ---

Cerebral Palsy

59

What is DDH?

Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip

60

What is one of the first things we do with DKA?

obtain venous access to give all the fluids

61

S/S of MD

fatigue/muscle weakness (lower extremities first)

Unsteady gait, with a waddle

Lordosis

Frequent falling

Learning difficulties/cognitive delays

Atrophy of muscles--possible loss of ability to walk by age 12

62

What is the pre-op treatment for Clubfoot?

serial casting shortly after birth

63

Treatment for a sprain?

RICE

Rest
Ice
Compression
Elevation

64

S/S of Compartment Syndrome

Increased pain that is unrelieved with analgesics or elevation

Numbness

Pulselessness

Inability to move digits

Warm digits with skin that is tight and shiny
pallor

65

Which type of traction?

skin traction on lower leg and padded sling under the knee

Russell Traction

66

What do we do w/ bony prominences when casting?

pad them

67

Nursing responsibilities w/ Legg Calve Perthes?

Maintain rest and no weight bearing

Administer NSAIDs

68

Urinalysis for Nephrotic Syndrome?

Proteinuria (2+ on dipstick)

69

Nursing responsibilities w/ a fracture

Assess 5 P's

Cover open wound w/ sterile dressing

Immobilize limb

Neurvascular checks often

Elevate if possible

Ice for 20 mins

Pain meds

Keep client warm

70

What is a Denis Browne Splint?

shoes w/ a bar holding them apart

used as postop treatment for clubfoot

71

What are Tet Spells?

acute episodes of cyanosis and hypoxia

72

What is Torticollis?

wry neck (head tilt)

73

Kernicterus, caused by
Billirubin, is a risk factor for ---

Cerebral Palsy

74

What is the cause of Aortic Stenosis?

bicuspid, instead of tricuspid, aortic valve

75

Pathology of Cerebral Palsy

Cerebral anoxia -->

Brain damage -->

Loss of normal function

76

Why are NSAIDs good for JIA?

control pain and inflammation

long term use w/ few S/E

***take w/ food for gastric irritation

77

Bryant Traction is which type of traction?

Skin Traction

- hips are at 90 degree angle
- butt off bed

78

Can MD be treated?

no, just manage symptoms

- encourage ROM and ADL as long as possible
- keep lungs functioning

79

What is Lordosis?

sway back

80

When is permanent closure of the ductus areriosis?

10-21 days after birth

81

What is the growth hormone?

Somatropin

- subQ

82

MD affects which extremities first?

lower

83

Why are fluids necessary w/ DKA?

because they are so dehydrated