ATI Unit 3 Respiratory Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ATI Unit 3 Respiratory Deck (22):

Pulmonary Functions Tests (PFTs)

these determine lung function and breathing difficulties

- if client is a smoker, instruct not to smoke 6-8 hours prior, if client uses inhalers, withhold 4-6 hours prior to testing


what does an ABG measure

pH: amount of free hydrogen ions in arterial blood
PaO2: partial pressure of oxygen
PaCO2: partial pressure of carbon dioxide
HCO3-: concentration of bicarbonate in arterial blood
SaO2: percentage of oxygen bound to Hgb as compared with total amount than can be carried


how can an ABG be obtained

through venipuncture or arterial line


Preprocedure for ABG arterial puncture

1. obtain heparinized syringe
2. perform Allent Test (occlude ulnar and radial arteries with balled fist then release one each)
3. can be painful so let patient know what an ABG is



1. perform an arterial puncture using aseptic technique acquiring into heparinized syringe
2. put syringe into container with ice and water to maintain pH and oxygen pressure transport immediately to lab
3. radial sampling in older clientscanbehardb/c of decreased peripheral vasculature


Postprocedure for arterial puncture

1. hold pressure/gauze for 5 minutes, 20 if on anticoags
2. assess for swelling, temperature, loss of pulse, pallor
3. document
4. notify provider of results
5. admin O2 and change ventilator settings if needed

***note: arterial puncture often performed by respiratory therapist


Arterial Line Procedure

Pre: get two syringes, heparinized for sampling and standard for waste (verify line can be used)

Intra: collect waste and sampling and put on ice to transport to lab; flush line with flushing system

Post: assess the arterial waveform upon completion, document/notify, admin O2 and adjust ventilator settings


Complications of Arterial line/arterial venipuncture

1) hematoma
2) air embolism


what's important before performing a bronchoscopy

that client maintained on NPO status usually 8-12 hours to reduce aspiration risk and when cough reflex is blocked by anesthesia


what does atropine do

reduces oral secretions


what position is a bronchoscopy performed in



patient after a bronchoscopy has a mild, short fever nd a small amount of blood-tinged sputum, what does the nurse suscpect

nothing this is normal


when is a client discharged from bronschoscopy

when cough reflex and resp effort are adequate


what can ease a sore throat

gargling salt water and throat lozenges


what are complications of bronchoscopy

1. laryngospasm: laryngeal cords (vocal cords) contract and impede client's ability to inhale

2. pneumothorax (obtain follow up x-ray)

3. AspirationL can occur if client chokes on oral or gastric secretions


reasons for thoracentesis

1. transudates (heart failure, cirrhosis, nephritic syndrome)
2. exudates (inflammatory, infection, neoplastic conditions)
3. empyema
4. pneumonia
5. trauma or invasive surgery


assessment of effusion area

decreased breath sounds, dull percussion sounds, decreased chest wall expansion


how much can you remove during a thoracentesis

1L at a time to prevent cardiovascular collapse


Complications of a thoracentesis

1. mediastinal shift
2. pneumothorax (deviated trachea, pain on affected side worse on exhale, affected side doesn't move in and out, increased HR, rapid shallow resp, cough
3. bleeding
4. infection: with needle puncture (thoracentsis is aseptic


what are the three chambers for chest tube drainage system

1st chamger: drainage collection
2nd chamber: water seal
3rd: suction control


water seal

add up to 2cm line allows air to exit but not enter with inhale (level must be maintained, lies on the ground)

- tidaling movement is expected in water seal, with normal inspirations the fluid level rises with inspiration and vice versa expiration (but for pos-pressure mechanical ventilation it's the opposite)

-cessation of tidaling in water seal chamber signals lung reexpansion or obstruction


suction control chamger important fact

heigh of sterile fluid determines amount of suction (usually -20cm H2O), results in continuous bubbling in suctino chamber