Atomic Structure Flashcards Preview

MCAT Physical Sciences > Atomic Structure > Flashcards

Flashcards in Atomic Structure Deck (38):
1

Atom

Basic building block of matter, consist of protons, electrons, and neutrons

2

Protons

+1
1.0073 amu

3

Neutron

No charge, slightly heavier than a proton

4

Electron

-1
1/1837 mass of proton or neutron

5

Valence electrons

Electrons farthest away from nucleus that participate in bonding

6

Orbital

Region around nucleus where electron is likely to be found
Each has unique assignment for n, l, and m(l) quantum numbers

7

Atomic Number

Number of protons

8

Mass Number

Protons + Neutrons

9

Nucleus

Dense, positively charged atomic center that contains protons and neutrons

10

Atomic Mass Unit

1/12 of Carbon-12 atom mass

11

Atomic Weight

Average mass of all naturally occurring isotopes of a given element, measured in amu

12

Avogadro's Number

6.022 X 10^23 atoms/ mol

13

Isotopes

Same atomic number, but different neutron number

14

Bohr Model

Atomic model where electrons located in discrete circular orbits around nucleus, with electrostatic force acting as centripetal force

15

What does emission give rise to and how is it useful?

Emission gives rise to fluorescence and the unique atomic emission spectra could be used to identify an element

16

Quantum Mechanics

Study of physics at atomic level with discrete levels of energy

17

Atomic Emission Spectra

Discontinuous spectra of lit produced when electrons emit photons of certain frequencies as they return to their ground states

18

Atomic Absorption Spectra

The spectrum of certain absorbed light wavelengths corresponding to the energy electrons require to jump to the next energy level

19

What is the basis for color in compounds?

Absorption

20

Balmer Series

Set of spectral lines that appear in visible light region when hydrogen atom undergoes transition from energy levels n > 2 to n = 2

21

Lyman Series

Set of spectral lines that appear in UV region when hydrogen atom undergoes a transition from energy levels n > 1 to n = 1

22

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

Impossible to determine with perfect accuracy the exact momentum and position of orbiting electron simultaneously

23

Quantum Number

Set of four numbers used to describe electrons energy state

24

Photon

Unit of energy in the form of light equal to hf

25

Pauli Exclusion Principe

No two electrons in the same atom can possess the same set of four quantum numbers

26

Principal Quantum Number

It is any positive integer value and it describes an electron's energy value
Max number of electrons in energy level n is 2n^2, where the difference in energy between adjacent shells decreases as distance from nucleus increases

27

Azimuthal (Angular Momentum) Quantum Number

Refers to the subshells, ranges from 0 to n-1
l = 0, 1, 2, 3 ===> s, p, d, f
Max number of electrons in a subshell = 4l + 2

28

Magnetic Quantum Number

Specific Region within a subshell where highly likely to find an electron, ranging from -l to l, including 0

29

Spin Quantum Number

-1/2 or + 1/2

30

What are the four quantum numbers?

Principal Quantum Number
Azimuthal Quantum Number
Magnetic Quantum Number
Spin Quantum Number

31

Electron Configuration

Patterned order by which electrons fill subshells and energy levels in an atom

32

Aufbau Principle

Electrons fill an atom in order of increasing energy level

33

Hund's Rule

Electrons will first fill equal energy orbital of subshell unpaired with parallel spins before coupling with other electrons of opposite spins in same orbital to maximize number of half-filled orbitals, allowing for most stable electron distribution

34

Paschen Series

Set of spectral lines resulting when a hydrogen atom undergoes transition from energy levels n > 4 to n =3

35

Isoelectronic

Two different elements with same electron configuration

36

Paramagnetic

Atom or substance with unpaired electrons and attracted by a magnet

37

Diamagnetic

Atom or substance with no unpaired electrons and repelled by a magnet

38

Pfund Series

Set of spectral lines resulting when a hydrogen atom undergoes a transition from energy levels n > 5 to n = 5