Flashcards in Solutions Deck (23):
What is the term for a homogenous mixture of substances that form a single phase?
What does a solution consist of?
A solute dissolved in a solvent
How do the solute and solvent molecule interact?
Through solvation/ dissolution, known as hydration when water is the solvent, the solvent molecules form a cage-like structure around the solute. It occurs when the attractive forces between solvent and solute are stronger than those between the solute particles.
Like dissolves like!
The ratio or maximum solute that can be dissolved in a solvent at a given temperature.
(g solute)/ (100 g solvent)
What is the solution when the maximum amount of solute has been added?
Which salts are water soluble?
All salts of alkali metals, ammonium ions (NH^4+), bromides, chlorides, and iodides (except Ag+, Pb^2+, and Hg^2+), sulfates (SO4^2-) (except Ca^2+, Sr^2+, Ba^2+, and Pb^2+).
What are insoluble in water?
All metal oxides (except Alkali, CaO, SrO, and BaO), hydroxides (except Alkali, Ca^2+, Sr^2+, and Ba^2+), carbonates, phosphates, sulfides, and sulfates (except Alkali and ammonium) are insoluble.
Water is the solvent.
A particle (single or polyatomic) with charge.
Why do permanganate and chromate make good oxidizing agents?
They each have an inordinately hight oxidation number, making them more likely to gain electrons to reduce the oxidation number.
Solutes that dissociate in solvent to form a solution that can conduct electricity, producing a larger effect on Colligative properties than would be expected for the concentration.
Ratio of solute to solvent
Percent composition by mass
(mass of solute/ mass of solution) 100
moles of compound/ total moles in system
moles of solute/ L of solution
For dilute solution, the volume of solution is approximately equal to volume of solvent.
moles of solute/ kg of solvent
At 25°C for dilute aqueous solutions, molality approximately equals molality, because water has a density of 1 kg/L.
gram equivalent of solute weight/ L of solution
Involves concentration of reactive species and it is reaction dependent.
Equation used to determine a dilution
C1V1 = C2V2
I.P. = [A^n+]^m [B^m-]^n
Solubility Product Constant
Ksp = I.P. In saturated solution
It represents an equilibrium at saturation.
I.P. > Ksp, precipitation occurs
x^2, 4x^3, and 27x^4 for MX, MX2, and MX3, respectively
What is occurring when the molar solubility of a salt decreases when another salt, with a common ion, is in the solution.
The Common Ion Effect is an example of Le Châtelier's Principle.
The point where the rate of dissociation equals the rate of precipitation, even with the addition of more solute.