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MCAT Physical Sciences > Fluids and Solids > Flashcards

Flashcards in Fluids and Solids Deck (18):
0

Density

ρ = m/V, in kg/m^3
Density of water is 10^3 kg/m^3 = 1 gm/cm^3

1

Specific Gravity

The ratio of substance density to that of water.

2

Pressure

P = F/A, units = N/m^2 = Pa
1 atm = 1.013 X 10^5 Pa

3

Absolute Pressure

Below the surface of a liquid, the pressure depends in gravity and surface pressure. Pressure depends only on the density of the liquid and it increases with depth linearly.
P = (surface Pressure) + ρg(depth)

4

Gauge Pressure

The difference between atmospheric and absolute pressure.

5

Pascal's Principle

Pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is passed on equally at all points within that fluid. The change in pressure is equal between both pistons of a hydraulic lever and the volume remains constant.

6

Archimedes' Principle

The buoyant force of a body in liquid is equal to the weight of liquid displaced by the body. Focus on the volume submerged.

7

Adhesion

Attractive force between liquid molecules and the molecule of another substance.

8

Cohesion

Attractive force between the liquid molecules feel with the other molecules.

9

Streamline

Path no turbulent liquid molecules take.

10

Continuity Equation

Av = k
Mass flow rate of liquid remains constant throughout the tube.

11

Bernoulli's Equation

Conservation of energy in fluid flow says that increased velocity (decreased cross section) means decreased pressure at constant height.
P + 1/2ρv^2 + ρgy = k

12

Viscosity

The internal friction of a fluid.

13

Laminar Flow

The sliding of thin layers of liquid over each other as long a the flow rate remains below critical velocity.

14

Turbulent Flow

Random local vortices that occur beyond the boundary layer of liquids.

15

Young's Modulus

Solid elasticity characterized by the ratio of stress (F/A) to strain (ΔL/L) when the force is perpendicular to the surface area.

16

Shear Modulus

Solid's resistance to shear stress as described by the ratio of shear stress (F/A) to strain (x/h) that occurs when force is parallel to the surface area.

17

Bulk Modulus

The change in pressure to the change in volume.
B = ΔP/(ΔV/V)