Flashcards in Fluids and Solids Deck (18):

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## Density

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ρ = m/V, in kg/m^3

Density of water is 10^3 kg/m^3 = 1 gm/cm^3

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## Specific Gravity

### The ratio of substance density to that of water.

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## Pressure

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P = F/A, units = N/m^2 = Pa

1 atm = 1.013 X 10^5 Pa

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## Absolute Pressure

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Below the surface of a liquid, the pressure depends in gravity and surface pressure. Pressure depends only on the density of the liquid and it increases with depth linearly.

P = (surface Pressure) + ρg(depth)

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## Gauge Pressure

### The difference between atmospheric and absolute pressure.

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## Pascal's Principle

### Pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is passed on equally at all points within that fluid. The change in pressure is equal between both pistons of a hydraulic lever and the volume remains constant.

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## Archimedes' Principle

### The buoyant force of a body in liquid is equal to the weight of liquid displaced by the body. Focus on the volume submerged.

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## Adhesion

### Attractive force between liquid molecules and the molecule of another substance.

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## Cohesion

### Attractive force between the liquid molecules feel with the other molecules.

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## Streamline

### Path no turbulent liquid molecules take.

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## Continuity Equation

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Av = k

Mass flow rate of liquid remains constant throughout the tube.

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## Bernoulli's Equation

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Conservation of energy in fluid flow says that increased velocity (decreased cross section) means decreased pressure at constant height.

P + 1/2ρv^2 + ρgy = k

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## Viscosity

### The internal friction of a fluid.

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## Laminar Flow

### The sliding of thin layers of liquid over each other as long a the flow rate remains below critical velocity.

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## Turbulent Flow

### Random local vortices that occur beyond the boundary layer of liquids.

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## Young's Modulus

### Solid elasticity characterized by the ratio of stress (F/A) to strain (ΔL/L) when the force is perpendicular to the surface area.

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## Shear Modulus

### Solid's resistance to shear stress as described by the ratio of shear stress (F/A) to strain (x/h) that occurs when force is parallel to the surface area.

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