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pychology-AS and A level > attachment > Flashcards

Flashcards in attachment Deck (22)
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1

attachment

an emotional bond between two people that endures over time. a two-way process leading to behaviours such as clinging and proximity-seeking.

2

caregiver

any person who provides care for a child such as a parent, grandparent, sibling, child-minder

3

interactional synchrony

when interacting with each other people tend to mirror each other's facial body movements, emotions as well as behaviours can be imitated

4

reciprocity

where the actions of one partner elicit a response from the other partner. the response are not necessarily similar, a sin interactional synchrony

5

stranger anxiety

the distress shown by an infant when approached or held by someone who is unfamiliar

6

contact comfort

physical contact with a caregiver that can provide physical and emotional comfort

7

imprinting

an innate readiness to develop a strong bond with the mother which takes place during a specific time in development, probably the first few hours after being born/hatching

8

classical conditioning

learning through association. a neutral stimulus is consistently paired with an unconditioned stimulus, eventually becomes a conditioned stimulus, producing a conditioned response

9

learning theory

A group of explanations which explain behaviour in terms of learning rather that inborn tendencies or higher order thinking

10

Operant Conditioning

Learning through reinforcement or punishment. if behaviour is followed by a desirable consequence, then that behaviour is more likely to occur again in the future

11

Continuity Hypothesis

emotionally secure infants go on to be emotionally secure, trusting and confident adults

12

Critical period

biologically determined period during which certain characteristics develop. outside this time window such development will not be possible

13

Internal Working Model

mental model of the world which enables individuals to predict and control their environment. a person's expectations about relationships

14

Monotropy

the relationship the infant has with his/her primary attachment figure is of special significance in emotional development

15

social releaser

social behaviour or characteristic , such as smiling, that elicits caregiving and leads to attachment

16

insecure avoidant

attachment type which describes children who tend to avoid social interaction and intimacy with others

17

insecure-resistant

attachment type which describes infants who both seek and reject intimacy and social interaction

18

secure attachment

a strong and contended attachment developing sensitive responding to the infant's needs. infants are comfortable with social interaction and intimacy

19

strange situation

controlled observation of willingness to explore, stranger anxiety, separation anxiety and reunion behaviour. it is designed to test attachment security

20

cultural variations

the way that different groups of people vary in terms of their social practices, and the effect these practices have on the development and behaviour

21

deprivation

the loss of emotional care that is normally provided by a primary caregiver

22

institutionalisation

the effect of institutional care, especially how time spent in an institution such as an orphanage can affect the development of children. possible effects e.g. mental and physical underdevelopment, which could be irreversible