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Flashcards in issue and debates Deck (31)
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1

alpha bias

exaggerate differences between men and women. the consequence is that theories devalue one gender in comparison to the other

2

beta bias

ignore or minimise differences between men and women.

3

androcentrism

centred or focused on men, often to the neglect or exclusion of women

4

gender bias

the differential treatment or representation of men and women based on stereotypes rather than real differences

5

universality

develop theories that apply to all people, which may include real differences

6

cultural bias

judge all people in terms of your own cultural assumptions.

7

cultural relativism

behaviour cannot be judged properly unless it is viewed in the context of the culture in which it originates

8

culture

the rules, custom, morals, childrearing practices that bind a group of people together and define how they are likely to behave

9

ethnocentrism

seeing things from the point of view of ourselves and our social group. evaluating other groups of people using the standards and customs of one's own culture

10

determinism

behaviour is controlled by external or internal factors acting upon the individual

11

free will

individuals have the power to make choices about their behaviour

12

hard determinism

all behaviour can be predicted and there is no free will. the two are incompatible

13

soft determinism

allows for some element of free will

14

emic

investigation of a culture from within the culture itself

15

etic

study of a culture from the perspective of another culture

16

psychic determinism

Freud's psychoanalytic theory suggests that personality is determined by innate drives and early experience

17

biological determinism

human genome research suggests that some of our behaviours are genetically determined. genes also influence brain structure and neurotransmitters implicated in behaviour

18

environmental determinism

behaviourists believe that most behaviour is learned and unlearned via classical and operant conditioning

19

humanistic approach

free will is necessary in order to take responsibility for and change behaviour, without self determinism e.g. self growth cannot occur

20

moral responsibilty

individuals exercise free will over their actions. 'normal' adult behaviour is viewed as self-determined

21

environment

everything that is outside our body, which includes people, events and the physical world

22

heredity

traits are passed from parents to their offspring, usually referring to genetic inheritance

23

interactionist approach

the view that the processes of nature and nurture work together rather than in opposition

24

nature

behaviour is seen as a product of innate factors

25

nature-nurture debate

the argument as to whether a person's development is mainly due to their genes or to environmental influences

26

nurture

behaviour is a product of environmental influences

27

holism

focuses on the whole system rather than its constituent pars and suggests that the system is more than the sum of its individual components

28

reductionist

breaks complex phenomena into simpler components, implying that complex phenomena are best understood in terms of the simplest, yet complete, level of explanation

29

idiographic approach

focuses on individuals and emphasises uniqueness; favours qualitative methods in research

30

nomothetic approach

seeks to formulate general laws of behaviour based on the study of groups and the use of statistical techniques. it attempts to summarise the similarities between people through generalisations