cognitive development Flashcards Preview

pychology-AS and A level > cognitive development > Flashcards

Flashcards in cognitive development Deck (19)
Loading flashcards...
1

accommodation

adjusting or changing existing schemas because conflicting information creates disequilibrium

2

assimilation

fitting new experiences into an existing schema without making any change to the schema

3

cognitive development

mental processes change as we age

4

equilibration

balance between existing schemas and new experiences

5

schema

helps organise and interpret information in the brain. a mental framework of beliefs and expectations that influence cognitive processing. they are developed from experience

6

class inclusion

relation between two classes where all members from one class are included in the other

7

conservation

to understand that despite superficial changes in appearance basic properties of an object remain unchanged- age of 6 or 7

8

egocentrism

seeing things from your own viewpoint and being unaware of other possible viewpoints

9

object permanence

understanding that objects that are no longer visible nevertheless continue to exist

10

Piaget- stage 1

sensorimotor stage
0-2 years
infant learns how to co-ordinate sensory input with motor actions
around 8 months infants gain object permanence

11

Piaget-stage 2

pre-operational stage
2-7 years
children lack logic-based reasoning, in conservation tasks children fail to see the logic that volume csnnot change
thinking is egocentric
children struggle with class inclusion, they can classify objects into categories but have difficulty considering sub-groups

12

Piaget-stage 3

concrete operational stage
7-11 years
children acquire basic logical reasoning
bale to conserve
can't apply abstract thinking

13

Piaget-stage 4

formal operation stage
11 years+
children an solve abstract problems
also display idealistic thinking

14

scaffolding

aims to supports a learner only when absolutely necessary. provide a support framework to assist the learning process. scaffolding is where the learner is assisted through their ZPD

15

semiotics

signs and symbols developed within a particular culture

16

Zone of proximal development

the 'region' between a person's current ability, can they perform with no assistance, their potential capabilities, which they can be helped to achieve with the assistance of 'experts'

17

false belief

others may hold and act on mistaken beliefs

18

nativist approach

born with innate abilities

19

physical reasoning system

innate system provides a framework for reasoning about the displacements and interactions of physical objects