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Psychology A Level > Attachment > Flashcards

Flashcards in Attachment Deck (129)
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1

What is Attachment?

Attachment is an emotional bond between two people that develops over time between the infant and their primary caregiver.

2

What is Reciprocity?

It is a form of interaction between infant and caregiver involving mutual responsiveness.

3

Why are Mother infant interactions reciprocal?

`Because both the infant and mother respond to each other's signals and each elicits a response from the other.

4

What did Jaff et al say about caregiver-infant interactions?

He said that from birth, babies move in a rhythm when interacting with an adult almost as if they were taking turns as people do when having a conversation.

5

What did Brazelton say about caregiver-infant interactions?

Brazelton said that the regularity of an infant's signals allows a caregiver to anticipate their behaviour and respond appropriately.

Laying a foundation for later attachment.

6

What is interactional synchrony?

Is when two people interact and tend to mirror what the other is doing in terms of their facial and body movementS (emotions and behaviours)

7

What did Meltzoff and Moore 1977 study investigate?

It investigated the development of interaction synchrony.

8

What was the procedure of Meltzoff and Moore 1977 study on the development of interactional synchrony?

There was a controlled observation of three faces and a hand gesture and they watched the infant's responses in the 4 specific areas.

They were videoed for inter-rater reliability.

9

What are strengths of Meltzoff and Moore 1977 study on the development of interactional synchrony?

It was a controlled observation, both the infant and the mother were filmed from multiple angels so very fine details of behaviour could be recorded meaning that the research conducted has good validity.

10

What are weaknesses of Meltzoff and Moore 1977 study on the development of interactional synchrony?

The study is unreliable, infant's mouths are in constant motion and they often stick their tongue out, yawn and smite which may cause an issue for researchers investigating infant behaviour as it is difficult to distinguish between general activity and specific imitated behaviour.

There was also inconsistent findings when people replicated Meltzoff and Moore study, Kopek et al failed to replace Meltzoff and Moore's findings, suggesting the original research may be unreliable, however M&M said this was because Koepke's research was less controlled

11

What are the stages of attachment?

Asocial stage

Indiscriminate attachment stage

Specific attachment stage

Multiple attachments stage

12

What is the Asocial stage?

(0-2months) is when the baby starts to recognise and form bonds with carers. The baby's behaviour to objects and humans is similar.

13

What is the indiscriminate attachment stage?

(2-7 months) Is when babies start to display more observable social behaviour.

They recognise and prefer familiar adults and accept comfort from any adults and do now show stranger/separation anxiety.

14

What is the specific attachment stage?

(From 7 months) Is when babies start to display stranger / separation anxiety.

They have formed a specific attachment to a primary attachment figure who offers the most interaction.

15

What is the multiple attachments attachment stage?

Formed shortly after a specific attachment babies form secondary attachments (29% within a month of forming a primary attachment)
and by the age of one, most infants have developed multiple attachments.

16

What was Schaffer and Emerson 1964 study investigate?

To investigate the formation of early attachments, the age at which they developed, their emotional intensity and to whom they were directed.

17

What was the procedure of Schaffer and Emerson's 1964?

Participants were 60 babies from working class families in Glasgow.

The mother and baby were visited at home every month for the 1st year and again at 18 months .

The researcher asked the mother questions about the kind of protests their baby showed in 7 everyday situations e.g. an adult leaving the room which assessed separation anxiety.

They also assessed stranger anxiety.

18

What was the findings of Schaffer and Emerson's 1964 study?

They found that the specific primary attachment was usually with the mother.

50% of babies showed operation anxiety between 25-32 weeks of age.

At 40 weeks 80% of the babies had a specific attachment and almost 30% displayed multiple attachments.

19

What did Schaffer and Emerson conclude from their 1964 study?

They concluded that the attachment tended to be to the caregiver who was the most interactive and sensitive to the infants signals and this did not have to be the person they spent the most time with.

20

What are the strengths of Schaffer and Emerson's 1964 study?

It had a longitudinal design, the same children were followed up and observed regularly resulting in the study having better internal validity because it doesn't have the confounding variable of individual differences between participants.

Another strength is that it was done in natural settings, there was no observer effects as the parents were doing the reporting, so behaviour was natural as a result the study has high external validity as research was conducted in homes and not an artificial setting.

21

What are weaknesses of Schaffer and Emerson's study?

It lacks historical validity, it was conducted in the 60s when gender roles were different, now more men stay at home to look after their children and more women go out to work so the sample is biased.

Another weakness is that it lacks cultural variation, in western cultures there is an emphasis on individualism and in eastern cultures there is an emphasis on collectivism. The study can not be generalised as it is an imposed etic, it applies specifically to individualist cultures.

22

What was Lorenz 1935 study investigate?

It investigated imprinting in animals.

23

What was the procedure of Lorenz 1935 study on imprinting in animals?

Lorenz took a group of gosling eggs and divided them into 2 groups, one was left with their mother and the others were placed in an incubator.

When the incubator eggs hatched the first living thing they saw was Lorenz and they soon started to follow him around.

To test the effect, he marked the 2 groups and placed them together.

24

What was the findings of Lorenz 1935 study on imprinting in animals?

He found that they quickly divided themselves up, one group following their natural mother and the other Lorenz.


This process is said to occur in a definite period of life, the critical period. If an animal does not see a moving object during this time, it will not imprint.

25

What did Lorenz 1935 conclude from his study?

he concluded that a young animal will imprint on the first moving object it sees.

26

What are strengths of Lorenz 1935 imprinting study?

It has high validity as there is research supporting it. Guiton demonstrated that leghorn chicks, exposed to yellow rubber gloves for feeding them during their first few weeks, became imprinted on them.

27

What are weaknesses of of Lorenz 1935 imprinting study?

The findings from the study are hard to generalise to human behaviour.

Humans differ in important ways to animals, much more of our behaviour is governed by conscious decisions.

Lorenz studied imprinting in birds but mammalian mothers would show more emotional attachment to their infants.

Although animal studies can act as an important pointer in understanding human behaviour, we should always seek confirmation with human research because we differ in nature and complexity to that of other species.

28

What did Harlow 1959 study investigate?

Testing learning theory of attachment in animals.

29

What was the procedure of Harlow's 1959 study on testing learning theory of attachment on animals?

Infant monkeys were removed from their mother at birth and raised in isolation in cages.

Two types of surrogate mother were constructed, a harsh wire mother and a soft towelling mother.

There were 4 conditions and the feeding time and time spent with each mother was recorded.

30

What did Harlow find out from his 1959 study on testing learning theory of attachment on animals?

He found that they preferred to cling to the towelling mother, regardless of whether she produced milk.

All 8 monkeys spent the most time with the cloth covered monkey and all hung onto when frightened.