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1

What is the multi-store model?

A representation of how memory works in terms of three stores called sensory register, short-term memory and long term memory.

It also describes how information is transferred from one store to another, how it is remembered and how it is forgotten.

2

What are the stages of the multi-store memory model?

Environmental input
Sensory Memory
Encoding
Short Term Memory
Encoding
Long Term Memory
Retrieval
Short Term Memory
Rehearsing
Short Term Memory

3

What is the sensory register?

Environmental stimuli from the senses is received by the sensory memory, where it remains for split seconds unless attention is paid to any of the information.

4

What is the sensory memory?

The sensory memory receives and stores information from the environment through our senses.

5

Information from sight is stored in what memory?

Iconic Memory

6

Information from hearing is stored in what memory?

Echoic Memory

7

How long does information last in the sensory register?

It lasts a few seconds before it decays but it lasts long enough to be encoded.

8

What selects what information we encode?

The attention mechanism.

9

What is Short term memory?

Holds all the information the individual is thinking about consciously at one time, it is a limited capacity store.

10

If memory is encoded from sensory memory it reaches where?

Short term memory

11

If memory is encoded from the short term memory it reaches where?

Long term memory

12

What is Encoding?

The process of changing information to a form the memory can deal with.

13

How do we encode to the short term memory?

Acoustically (Echoic)

14

What is the capacity of the short term memory?

7 (+ or -) 2

15

What is the capacity of the short term memory?

7 (+ or -) 2

16

What did Miller in 1956 do that supported the multi store model?

Miller in 1956 suggested when seeing how many numbers people could remember and on a sort of screen flashing by when they're told to write them down they only write down a maximum of nine and a minimum of 5 on average.

This supports the capacity of of the short term memory of 7 (+ or -) 2

17

What is Rehearsal?

To maintain the duration of items in the short term memory it must be rehearsed, this re-enters the information into the STM.

18

What are the two types of rehearsal?

Maintenance rehearsal and elaborative rehearsal

19

What is Maintenance rehearsal?

Maintenance rehearsal keeps information in the short term memory.

20

What is elaborative rehearsal?

Elaborative rehearsal is the process that keeps information in the long term memory.

21

What is Long term memory?

Long term memory is a potentially permanent memory store for information that has been rehearsed for a prolonged time.

22

What is the capacity of the long term memory

It has unlimited capacity.

23

What is retrieval?

Retrieval is the process of recalling information from the long term memory to be transferred back to the short term memory.

24

What is retrieval?

Retrieval is the process of recalling information from the long term memory to be transferred back to the short term memory.

25

How is short term memory encoded?

Acoustically

26

What is acoustic encoding?

Acoustic encoding is when the information we encode is through sounds.

27

What is semantic encoding?

This means that memory is encoded through meaning, if we remember something in a lot of detail if we elaborate upon it we give it meaning.

28

What is the duration of the short term memory?

A few seconds

29

What is the duration of long term memory?

Potentially a lifetime.

30

What are the weaknesses of the multi-store memory model?

Shallice and Warrington showed that STM doesn't have to come between Sensory Memory and LTM. They looked at Brain damaged patients who lost their STM but could still have past LTM. This suggests that there isn't two separate memory systems and it should all be one big system.

The fact that there is only one LTM memory stored is challenged by how there are different types of memory; semantic (general information), procedural (how we do things) and episodic (past experiences). LTM doesn't distinguish between these three types of memory, that fact that it just says LTM is pretty vague.


Shallice and Warrington also conducted a KF study, who's STM was restricted to verbal material. However, acoustically encoded sounds that weren't words were also stored well. This shows that there isn't just one store for all STM and that the multi-store model is vague.