Flashcards in Attachment and early caregiver-infant relationships Deck (15):
What are the key names for Attachment Theory?
John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth
What is attachment theory?
Strong emotional bonds = a basic component of human nature, which is already present in germinal form in the neonate.
Emphasises the relational basis of all communication, which has:
- Ontogenetic importance (leads to baby being cared for)
- Phylogenetic importance (which benefits the species)
What is an affectional bond?
A 'special' tie between two individuals - a desire to maintain closeness
What is attachment?
A variety of affectional bonds, where sense of security is bound up in the relationship
What are attachment behaviours?
Behaviours which facilitate physical proximity to and interaction with an attached individual
What is the first development of parent-child interaction and relationships (according to Bowlby)?
Early 'non-intentional' infant behaviour attachment behaviours (from birth)
What is the second development of parent-child interaction and relationships (according to Bowlby)?
Beginnings of intentional attachment behaviours (from 3 months)
What are the third developments of parent-child interaction and relationships (according to Bowlby)?
Secure base behaviours and social anxiety behaviours (from 6 months)
When does stranger anxiety occur?
Rare before 5/6 months
Usually emerges between 6-9 months
Begins to decline after 12-16 months
When does separation anxiety occur?
Begins around 9 months
Continues for longer
What is secure attachment?
The child uses the parent as a safe base and is readily consoled after separation when fearful or when otherwise stressed.
What is insecure attachment?
The child does not use the parent as a safe base and is not readily consoled by the parent if upset
What is avoidant insecure attachment?
Child avoids contact with mother, especially at reunion after an absence
What is ambivalent insecure attachment?
Child shows little exploration and is wary of a stranger. Upset when separated from mother but not reassured by comforting