Flashcards in Conversation in children and adults Deck (28):
What does increasing complexity of language result in?
Greater range and subtlety in how the child interacts with others
What did Halliday (1975) come up with?
A small set of communicative functions which are used even before language (in the form of lexical development) develop
What develops before the imaginative and the informative function?
The instrumental function
What are already in the child's repertoire and have been previously expressed by other forms (gesture/non-lexical vocalisations)?
New forms of communicative behaviour to express functions/meanings
What occurs in the first year in terms of communication?
Discovering that vocalisations and gestures have predictable effects
Mapping prosodic contour to speaker affect and communicative intent
What occurs between 8-15 months in terms of communication?
Requesting objects or activities
What occurs 16-23 months in terms of communication?
What happens at 2 years onwards in terms of communication?
Evoking absent objects and events
What is interaction/social interaction?
Any form of social interaction between 2 or more people (e.g. Two infants playing silently together)
What is conversation?
Social interaction that involves talk (this doesn't have to be an adult form of conversation)
What is conversation analysis according to Sidnell?
Focuses on naturally occurring interaction
Analyses utterances based on preceding talk, responses
Analyses issues such as turn taking, social actions, repair
What are the rules the children have to learn to take part successfully in interaction?
Talk by one person is achieved by all participants
Listen while talking and talk while listening during overlapping speech
People can still be talking when they are silent (remembering or finishing sentence)
Talk may be interruptive before sequences are complete
What are requests like at 12-18 months?
Point and vocalisation (protowords)
What declines and increases in terms of requests?
I like forms decline and can you and shall we forms increase
What do can you and shall we forms elicit?
Explicitly seek the alignment of the parent towards the course of action the child is proposing
What is a pre sequence?
Requesting the right to talk the floor and become the main speaker
What is repair?
Behaviours used to deal with trouble in speaking, hearing and understanding
What are the three types of repair?
Self-initiated self repair
Other-initiated self repair
What is indirectly requesting for information?
One way adults can elicit information from another rather than ask directly is to tell of their own experience
First speaker refers to an event which they know the second speaker knows more about from personal experience
How does irony work?
By a speaker producing talk which is obviously hearable by its recipient as inappropriate, and this therefore triggers the recipient to hear the talk as ironic
Why do adults use sarcasm?
To resist or disagree with what somebody else is saying
Competent adults recognise sarcasm
Cultural factors may play a part in sarcasm
What is teasing?
An exaggeration for humorous purposes of what might be true
What is being po-faced?
Recognising teasing but choosing not to laugh along to it
Why are stories not pre packaged?
Stories are only told a few times and are linked to the person telling the story
What do stories do?
Alert recipient and allow for response with a visible structure
Achieve some display of emotion
Consists of acting out
Couples may co-tell the story to indicate closeness
What is needed in institutional talk?
Need practical knowledge and expertise with distinctive ways of talking
What is the lexical choice of institutional speech?
Use of technical vocab
Use of I and We depending on context - either on behalf of the individual or the organisation
Follow up responses