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Flashcards in Ageing Deck (18):

What are the ages of development as proposed by Laslett (1996)?

First age = childhood
Second age = early adulthood
Third age = "young old" - characterised by less financial responsibilities - resources to make use of 'free time'
Fourth age = "old old" - 'final dependence, decrepitude and death'


What are the two theories behind why we age?

Programmed theories and error theories


What is disposable soma theory?

Ageing is a by-product our evolutionary design to maximise chances of reproduction


What are some combination theories (programmed and error)?

Wear and tear
Autoimmune responses
Somatic mutations
'Cellular garbage' damage
Environmental insults

However, a strong genetic influence on longevity (resilience)


What are some cognitive changes associated with ageing?

Changes in sensory systems have an impact on cognition
Decrease in processing speed
Preservation of crystallised intelligence (ability to use skills, knowledge and experience)
Decrease in fluid intelligence (capacity to think logically and solve problems in novel situations)
Role of practice in maintenance - expertise and wisdom


What are the different forms of memory?

Working memory
Long term memory
- Semantic (explicit)
- Episodic (explicit)
- Procedural (implicit)


What happens to memory during ageing?

Individual differences in memory become more marked during ageing


What are most age-related diseases of the CNS associated with?



What are the increased neurodegenerative diseases during old age?

Dementia of Alzheimer's type (DAT) - death of nerve cells
Vascular dementia - reduced blood supply to the brain
Parkinson's disease - part of the brain becomes progressively damaged
Frontotemporal dementia - two front lobes of the brain damaged
Motor Neurone disease - progressively damages parts of the nervous system


What is mild cognitive impairment?

Refers to people across lifespan who have some functional difficulties with memory
More common in older people
A blurry line between normal ageing, MCI and DAT
Advocate testing for MCI to catch dementia early


What is benign senescent forgetfulness?

Normal ageing


What is dementia?

Essential feature: multiple cognitive deficits that include memory impairment and at least one of the following:
Aphasia - inability to understand or produce speech
Apraxia - inability to perform particular purposive actions
Agnosia - inability to interpret sensations and recognise things
Disturbance in executive functioning - weaknesses in a key set of mental skills


What must deficits be?

Sufficiently severe to cause impairment in occupational or social functioning
Represent a decline from a previously higher level of functioning


What occurs between the speech of young and old people?

Differences between younger people's intonation, sentence construction, articulation - more questions that might be expected
More temporal framing
More references to differences in age
More 'troubles'
Corresponding differences in communication style


What is the microsystem?

The system closest to the person and the one in which they have direct contact


What is the mesosystem?

Consists of the interactions between the different parts of a person's microsystem


What is the exosystem?

A setting that does not involve the person as an active participant


What is the macrosystem?

Encompasses the cultural environment in which the person lives and all other systems that affect them