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Flashcards in Attention and Consciousness Deck (41)
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1

What are the four different types of attention?

signal detection and vigilance, search, selective attention and divided attention

2

The means by which we actively process a limited amount of information from the enormous amount of information available through our senses, our stored memories, and our other cognitive processes:

Attention

3

more directly concerned with awareness - it includes both the feeling of awareness and the content of awareness, some of which may be under the focus of attention:

consciousness

4

We try to detect the appearance of a particular stimulus. Air traffic controllers, for example, keep an eye on all traffic near and over the airport:

signal detection and vigilance

5

We try to find a signal amidst distracters, for example, when we are looking for our lost cell phone on an autumn leaf-filled hiking path.

search

6

We choose to attend to some stimuli and ignore others, as when we are involved in a conversation at a party:

selective attention

7

We prudently allocate our available attentional resources to coordinate our performance of more than one task at a time, as when we are cooking and engaged in a phone conversation at the same time:

divided attention

8

nontarget stimuli that divert our attention away from the target stimulus

distractors

9

Scan the environment for a specific feature:

feature search

10

Look for a particular combination of features:

conjunction search

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Target is defined by a single feature, according to this theory the target should also "pop out", no attention required, parallel search:

Treisman's feature integration theory

12

Physical similarity between targets and distractors makes search harder:

similarity theory

13

This theory has 2 consecutive stages: activation of all target features (parallel) and then evaluate each of activated elements (serial)

Guided search theory

14

According to what theory of selective attention do we filter information right after we notice it at the sensory level?

Broadbent theory of attention

15

According to what theory of selective attention do we instead of blocking stimuli out, the filter weakens the strength of stimuli other than the target stimulus?

Treisman's attenuation model of attention

16

According to what theory of selective attention are all stimuli processed to the level of meaning, but relevance determines further processing and action?

Deutsch & Deutsch late-filter model

17

automatic processes are rapid and occur in parallel. They can be used to notice only physical sensory characteristics of the unattended message. But they do not discern meaning or relationships:

pre-attentive processes

18

These processes occur later. They are executed serially and and consume time and attentional resources, such as working memory. Can also be used to observe relationships among features. Serve to synthesise fragments into a mental representation of an object:

attentive, controlled processes.

19

Being prepared to attend to some incoming event, and maintaining this attention:

alerting

20

The selection of stimuli to attend to

orienting

21

Processes for monitoring and resolving conflicts that arise among internal processes. These processes include thoughts, feelings, and responses:

Executive attention

22

an inability to detect changes in objects or scenes that are being viewed:

change blindness

23

An attentional dysfunction in which people ignore half of their visual field that is contralateral to (on the opposite side of) the hemisphere of the brain that has a lesion:

spatial neglect/ hemi-neglect

24

becoming accustomed to a stimulus so that we gradually pay less and less attention to it:

habituation

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a change in a familiar stimulus prompts us to start noticing the stimulus again:

dishabituation

26

A lessening of attention to a stimulus that is not subject to conscious control:

sensory adaptation

27

a degree of physiological excitation, responsively, and readiness for action, relative to a baseline:

arousal

28

Many tasks that start off as controlled process eventually become automatic ones as a result of practise, this is knows as?

automatisation (proceduralisation)

29

errors in choosing an objective or in specifying a means of achieving it. Involves errors in intuitional, controlled processes:

mistakes

30

erors in carrying out an intended means for reaching an objective. Often involve errors in automatic processes:

slips