Autoimmunity Flashcards Preview

Term 3: Immunology/Pathology > Autoimmunity > Flashcards

Flashcards in Autoimmunity Deck (27):
1

What is rheumatoid arthritis?

-an autoimmune mediated inflammatory arthritis that leads to destruction of cartilage and bone

-systemic progressive inflammatory disorder

2

What diseases are associated with rheumatoid arthritis?

-cardiovascular disease

-infections

-malignancies

**shortened life expectancies

3

Mutations in genes for which MHC class is associated with rheumatoid arthritis?

MHC Class II

4

What is the Pannus?

-Inflammatory region in RA

-the area where the synovial membrane meets the bone

-in rheumatoid arthritis, this is where inflammed synovial membrane activates osteoclasts via cytokines

-leads to destruction of the joint

5

What is Rheumatoid Factor?

-antibody against Fc region of IgG

-85% of patients have RF

-It is not specific for RA - seen in other autoimmune diseases, chronic infections, elderly, and 10% of healthy individuals

6

What are Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptides (aCCP)?

-present in about 65-70% of RA patients

=loook this up

7

What inflammatory cytokines are implicated in causing rheumatoid arthritis?

-IL-1
-IL-6
-TNF-alpha

8

What hormone is associated with an increased risk for lupus?

-estrogen replacement

9

What tend to be the targets for antibodies in Lupus?

-nuclear antigens

(DNA and RNA complexes)

10

How many of the 11 ACR diagnostic criteria must be present to make a diagnosis of Lupus?

-4/11

11

What is malar rash?

-ACR criteria for Lupus

-Fixed erythema,
Flat or raised,
Over the malar eminences
Spares the nasolabial folds

12

What is Discoid Lupus?

-ACR criteria for lupus

-Erythematous raised patches with adherent keratotic scaling and follicular plugging;
Atrophic scarring in older lesions

13

How is arthritis resulting from Lupus different from arthritis caused by rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune arthriti?

-Arthritis with lupus is non-erosive, and thus reversible

14

What is the primary target of Polymyositis?

Muscle

(autoimmune)

15

What is the primary target of Dermatomysitis?

Muscle & Skin

(autoimmune)

16

What is the primary target of Systemic sclerosis/Scleroderma?

Skin/vasculopathy

(autoimmune)

17

What is the primary target of Sjogrens Syndrome?

Salivary and lacrimal glands

(autoimmune)

18

What is scleroderma?

-Multisystem disease characterized by fibrosis of the skin and internal organs

-Vasculopathy : widespread functional and structural abnormalities in small arteries, arterioles, and capillaries

-Autoimmune

19

What is Systemic Sclerosis?

-Subset of scleroderma

-Raunaud's phenomenon
-Fatigue
-Musculoskeletal complaints

-Puffy skin progressing to skin tightening and fibrosis

-Internal organ involvement

20

What is Raynaud's Phenomenon?

-Closure of muscular digital vessels

-Triggered by cold or stress, exacerbated by medications (beta-blockers)

-Triphasic color changes (pallor, cyanosis, erythematous)

-Seen in 4-15% of normal population

-Seen in 95% of patients with scleroderma

21

What is the clinical presentation of Polymyositis?

-Insidious onset of proximal muscle weakness in shoulder and pelvic girdles

-50% of pts have weakness in neck flexors

-Dysphagia
-Dysphonia
-Myalgia
-Raunaud's

22

What is the clinical presentation of Dermatomyositis?

-Proximal muscle weakness and associated symptoms similar to polymyositis

-Skin rashes

23

What immune cells are associated with Polymyositis?

-CD8+

24

What immune cells are associated with Dermatomyositis?

-CD4+

*also Complement & antibodies

25

What is Sjögren’s Syndrome?

-autoimmune disorder
-lymphocytic infiltration of exocrine glands
(salivary and lacrimal)

-also has systemic manifestations

Sx's:
-dry eyes
-Dry mouth

25% have internal organ involvement

26

Tell me about Scleroderma Renal Crisis.

-its an emergency

-Involves accelerated hypertension and rapid renal failure

-ACE inhibitors will save the patient's life

27

What are the ACR diagnostic criteria for lupus?

1. Malar rash (butterfly rash)

2. Discoid Rash

3. Photosensitivity

4. Oral ulcers

5. Non-erosive arthritis

6. Serositis (o=pleuritis or pericarditis)

7. Neurological disorder

8. Renal disorder (proteinuria)

9. Hematologic disorder (hemolytic anemia)

10. ANA positive

11. immunologic disorder