General Microbial Pathogenesis Flashcards Preview

Term 3: Immunology/Pathology > General Microbial Pathogenesis > Flashcards

Flashcards in General Microbial Pathogenesis Deck (27):
1

What are dermatophytes

-fungi

-can cause superficial infections of intact stratum corneum, hair, and nails

2

What are lactobacilli?

-vaginal bacteria

-ferment glucose to lactic acid, producing a low pH environment that will suppress growth of pathogens

3

What is vertical transmission?

-transmission of infectious agents from mother to fetus

4

S aureus secretes _________ which, degrades the extracellular matrix between host cells

hyaluronidase

5

Certain viruses such as rabies and poliovirus spread to the ___________ by infecting _________ and then traveling intracellularly along axons.

central nervous system

peripheral nerves

6

The most common and efficient mode of microbial dissemination is through the ___________.

bloodstream

7

What is the microorganism that can cross the barrier of unbroken skin?

-schistosoma

-releases enzymes that dissolve adhesive proteins that hold keratinocytes together

8

Influenza viruses have envelope proteins called _________that bind to _______ on the surface of epithelial cells in the respiratory tract.

hemagglutinins

sialic acid

9

_________ infection during the first trimester can lead to heart malformations, mental retardation, cataracts, or deafness while ______infection during the third trimester has little effect

Rubella

rubella

10

What is the dominant inflammatory reaction to viruses, bacteria, mycobacteria, fungi, protozoa, and parasites? (assume normal host immune system)

Virus = lymphocytic

Bacteria = granulocytic

Mycobacteria = granulomatous

Fungi = granulomatous

Protozoan = Lymphocytic

Parasite = Eosinophilic

11

What makes RNA viruses so hard to fight off and/or make vaccines for?

-They are hypermutatable

12

What are the ways in which viruses produce disease?

-Direct cytopathic effects: cells fill with virus

-Anti-viral immune reactions

-Transformation of host cell to neoplasm

13

Where do DNA and RNA viruses tend to replicate?

DNA = in nucleus

RNA = in cytoplasm

14

What is an emerging infection?

-a movement of organisms from one usually isolated ecosystem to a new ecosystem

15

What are the usual targets of antibiotics?

-Cell Wall

-Prokaryotic polymerase

-Transcription & translation (prokaryotic ribosomes)

16

What color do gram positive & negative bacteria stain?

-Gram positive = dark blue

-Gram positive = red

17

What are cocci?

Round bacteria in pairs or clusters

18

What re bacilli?

Rod-like bacteria

19

What are Spirochetes?

-cork-screw like bacteria

20

What kind of self-reactive antibodies can result from a Streptococcal infection?

-myocarditis

-Valvular heart disease

-Glomerulonephritis

21

Are mycobacteria gram positive or negative?

Weakly Gram positive

**we rely on Acid-fast bacteria (AFB) stain for mycobacteria

22

What are yeast vs hyphae morphology in fungi?

-yeast = round, budding, and usually much larger than bacteria (predominate at higher temps)

-Hyphae = elongaded structures, filamentous, and often branching (predominate at lower temps)

23

What do fungi look like in GMS stain?

-fungi are black

-background tissue is Green

24

What is a white fungal infection of the tongue and/or pharynx called?

-oral thrush

*caused by Candida

25

What special immune cells eat large deep fungi?

-multinucleated giant cells

**granulomatous inflammation!

26

What is Toxoplasmosis?

-a protozoan that may infect organs in immunocompromised

27

What are Metazoans?

-multicellular eukaryotic organisms

-worms, surface parasites. shisto