Flashcards in General Microbial Pathogenesis Deck (27):
What are dermatophytes
-can cause superficial infections of intact stratum corneum, hair, and nails
What are lactobacilli?
-ferment glucose to lactic acid, producing a low pH environment that will suppress growth of pathogens
What is vertical transmission?
-transmission of infectious agents from mother to fetus
S aureus secretes _________ which, degrades the extracellular matrix between host cells
Certain viruses such as rabies and poliovirus spread to the ___________ by infecting _________ and then traveling intracellularly along axons.
central nervous system
The most common and efficient mode of microbial dissemination is through the ___________.
What is the microorganism that can cross the barrier of unbroken skin?
-releases enzymes that dissolve adhesive proteins that hold keratinocytes together
Influenza viruses have envelope proteins called _________that bind to _______ on the surface of epithelial cells in the respiratory tract.
_________ infection during the first trimester can lead to heart malformations, mental retardation, cataracts, or deafness while ______infection during the third trimester has little effect
What is the dominant inflammatory reaction to viruses, bacteria, mycobacteria, fungi, protozoa, and parasites? (assume normal host immune system)
Virus = lymphocytic
Bacteria = granulocytic
Mycobacteria = granulomatous
Fungi = granulomatous
Protozoan = Lymphocytic
Parasite = Eosinophilic
What makes RNA viruses so hard to fight off and/or make vaccines for?
-They are hypermutatable
What are the ways in which viruses produce disease?
-Direct cytopathic effects: cells fill with virus
-Anti-viral immune reactions
-Transformation of host cell to neoplasm
Where do DNA and RNA viruses tend to replicate?
DNA = in nucleus
RNA = in cytoplasm
What is an emerging infection?
-a movement of organisms from one usually isolated ecosystem to a new ecosystem
What are the usual targets of antibiotics?
-Transcription & translation (prokaryotic ribosomes)
What color do gram positive & negative bacteria stain?
-Gram positive = dark blue
-Gram positive = red
What are cocci?
Round bacteria in pairs or clusters
What re bacilli?
What are Spirochetes?
-cork-screw like bacteria
What kind of self-reactive antibodies can result from a Streptococcal infection?
-Valvular heart disease
Are mycobacteria gram positive or negative?
Weakly Gram positive
**we rely on Acid-fast bacteria (AFB) stain for mycobacteria
What are yeast vs hyphae morphology in fungi?
-yeast = round, budding, and usually much larger than bacteria (predominate at higher temps)
-Hyphae = elongaded structures, filamentous, and often branching (predominate at lower temps)
What do fungi look like in GMS stain?
-fungi are black
-background tissue is Green
What is a white fungal infection of the tongue and/or pharynx called?
*caused by Candida
What special immune cells eat large deep fungi?
-multinucleated giant cells
What is Toxoplasmosis?
-a protozoan that may infect organs in immunocompromised