Flashcards in Introduction to Immunology and Pathology Deck (15):
What makes up the innate immune system?
-physical epithelial barriers
-Natural Killer cells
-circulating plasma proteins
Why can Macrophages recognize bacteria?
-bacteria are made up of fats and carbs non normally found in the human body
What is a phagolysosome?
-vesicle inside a macrophage that contains an ingested bacterium and a lysosome
Why does a bacterial infection lead to a red swollen area?
-macrophages ingest bacteria and release cytokines that increase blood flow to area
-also allows for endothelial cell contraction, allowing more white cells and fluid to escape to the ECF
Which region of the antibody binds onto antigens?
-Fab (light chains)
What is the most common circulating antibody in the blood?
What happens once a B cell matches a cognate antigen?
-it is triggered to divide
-after a week of dividing there are 20,000 identical copies
-then they all make and secrete antibodies
What is opsonization?
-when antibodies bind to and tag invaders for destruction
-Complement binding is also involved
How doe antibodies fight viruses?
-bind to viruses that are outside of cells
-prevent them from entering cells
-virus then opsonized and phagocytized
What are the three types of T cells?
-Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CTLs)
-Helper T cells (Th)
-Regulatory T Cells (Treg)
What proteins present antigens to T cells?
-Major Histocompatiblilty complex (MHCs)
Where are Class I MHCs found?
-found in varying amounts on most cells in the body
-inform killer T cells what's going on inside the cell
Where are Class II MHCs found?
-only on Antigen Presenting Cells (eg Macrophages)
Which class of MHC can present larger protein fragments?