Introduction to Immunology and Pathology Flashcards Preview

Term 3: Immunology/Pathology > Introduction to Immunology and Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Introduction to Immunology and Pathology Deck (15):
1

What makes up the innate immune system?

-physical epithelial barriers

-Macrophages/monocytes

-dendritic cells

-Natural Killer cells

-circulating plasma proteins

2

Why can Macrophages recognize bacteria?

-bacteria are made up of fats and carbs non normally found in the human body

3

What is a phagolysosome?

-vesicle inside a macrophage that contains an ingested bacterium and a lysosome

4

Why does a bacterial infection lead to a red swollen area?

-macrophages ingest bacteria and release cytokines that increase blood flow to area

-also allows for endothelial cell contraction, allowing more white cells and fluid to escape to the ECF

5

Which region of the antibody binds onto antigens?

-Fab (light chains)

6

What is the most common circulating antibody in the blood?

IgG

7

What happens once a B cell matches a cognate antigen?

-it is triggered to divide

-after a week of dividing there are 20,000 identical copies

-then they all make and secrete antibodies

8

What is opsonization?

-when antibodies bind to and tag invaders for destruction

-Complement binding is also involved

9

How doe antibodies fight viruses?

-bind to viruses that are outside of cells

-prevent them from entering cells

-virus then opsonized and phagocytized

10

What are the three types of T cells?

-Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CTLs)

-Helper T cells (Th)

-Regulatory T Cells (Treg)

11

What proteins present antigens to T cells?

-Major Histocompatiblilty complex (MHCs)

12

Where are Class I MHCs found?

-found in varying amounts on most cells in the body

-inform killer T cells what's going on inside the cell

13

Where are Class II MHCs found?

-only on Antigen Presenting Cells (eg Macrophages)

14

Which class of MHC can present larger protein fragments?

-Class II

15

Where is the adaptive immune system activated?

-lymph nodes

-spleen