Axial Muscles Flashcards Preview

A&P > Axial Muscles > Flashcards

Flashcards in Axial Muscles Deck (41):
1

What is an example of a muscle pair that is arranged in pairs that have opposing actions?

Flexors and extensors
Abductors and addicted

2

What are the 4 functional groups?

Prime movers (agonist)
Antagonists
Synergists
Fixator

3

What is an agonist?

A prime mover
Responsible for producing a particular movement

4

Muscle that perform the reverse activity of a prime mover
(Also prevent overshooting of movement-help slows prime mover)

Antagonist

5

Group of muscles that work together to create a precise or steady movement

Synergists

6

Specialized synergist that immobilizes the origin of a prime mover so that all tension is exerted at the insertion

Fixator

7

Meaty portion of the muscle between tendons
(Composed of fascicles and perimysium)

Belly

8

Fascicles are arranged in a circular pattern of concentric rings usually around external openings to the body

Sphincters

9

Name an example of a sphincter

Eyes
Mouth

10

Broad origin and their fascicles converge onto a single tendon that inserts onto the bone

Convergent muscles

11

Has fascicles running along the long axis of the muscle
(Can be spindle shaped or flat strap)

Parallel muscles

12

Name an example of a flat strap and spindle shaped parallel muscle

Spindle- biceps brachii
Flat- neck

13

Has short fascicles that attach obliquely to a central tendon
(Feather like arrangement of fascicles)

Pennate muscles

14

Unipennate

Fascicles insert on one side of tendon

15

Bipennate

Fascicles insert the tendon from opposite sides

16

Multipennate

Muscles look like several feathers grouped together that join 1 tendon

17

What are levers?

Bones

18

Levers moved on a fixed point

Fulcrum
(A joint)

19

What 3 ways can change the applied force?

Direction
Distance/sipped of movement
Effective strength

20

Effort farther than load from fulcrum

Mechanical advantage

21

Effort nearer than the load to fulcrum

Mechanical disadvantage

22

Applied force and resistance are on opposite sides of the fulcrum
Example..

First class
Scissors and see saws

23

Resistance lies between the applied force and the fulcrum
These are the power levers
Example..

Second class
When you carry a wheelbarrow or stand on your toes

24

Force is applied between the resistance and the fulcrum
Example..

Third class
Operate with speed

25

fibers run parallel to the midline
Example

Rectus
Rectus femoris

26

Perpendicular to the midline
Example

Transverse
Transverse abdominis

27

Diagonal to the midline
Example

Oblique
External Oblique

28

Triangular

Deltoid

29

Trapezoid

Trapezius

30

Serratus

Saw toothed

31

Diamond shaped

Rhomboideus

32

Circular

Orbicularis

33

Comblike

Pectinate

34

Pear shaped

Piriform

35

Flat

Platys

36

Square

Quadratus

37

Slender

Gracilis

38

Makes a body part rigid

Tensor

39

Decreases size of opening

Sphincter

40

What are the muscles of mastication?

Masseter
Temporalis
Medial pterygoid
Lateral pterygoid

41

Prime movers of jaw closure

Masseter
Temporal is