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Flashcards in Nervous System 1 Deck (62):
1

Function of nervous system

Directs bodily activities
Maintains homeostasis
Circulates info
Thought action learning emotion

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What does the nervous system include?

All neural tissues in the body

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What are the thee main overlapping functions?

Sensory, motor, integrative functions

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This function component uses millions of sensory receptors of different types to monitor changes both inside and outside the body

Sensory

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Changes both inside and outside of the body

Stimuli

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Information gathered by sensory receptors (conveyed to integration center)

Sensory input

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What can be receptors?

Glands, skeletal muscles, cardiac muscles or smooth muscle

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2 major anatomical subdivisions

Central nervous system
Peripheral nervous system

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System with brain and spinal cord

CNS

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System that includes every nervous tissue except brain and spinal cord

PNS

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What is the PNS divided into?

Sensory (afferent)
Motor (efferent)

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output comes in 2 forms

autonomic
somatic

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output refers to voluntary movement (ex contraction of skeletal muscle)

somatic

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ouput refers to motor to the viscera and isnt under voluntary control

autonomic (ANS)

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out put that conducts impulses from CNS to cardiac muscle comprising the heart

autonomic

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output that contraction of skeletal muscles

somatic

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output that the smooth muscle in walls of hollow organs and to glands which produce various types of secretions

autonomic

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division of ANS that accelerates and mobilizes the body's organ systems

sympathetic division of ANS

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division of ANS that converses energy, promotes housekeeping, functions at rest.

parasympathetic

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basic structural and functional unit of the nervous system

neurons

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function of neurons

recieve process generate stimuli

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supportive cells of the nervous system that separate and protect neurons (ratio 10:1)

neuroglia (literally means neuron glue)

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what can be formed from neuroglia

brain tumors (gliomas)

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which system is neuroglia found?

CNS and PNS

25

what neuroglia cells does the CNS include

astocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, ependymal cells

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neuroglia cell that is most numerous and indispensible

astrocytes (look like stars)

27

what do astrocytes assist in health?

metabolism of neurotransmitters
maintain K levels (so neurons can generate action potentials)

28

neuroglia that assists in creating blood brain barrier, obtains nutrients and gets rid of wastes by connecting with blood vessels

astrocytes

29

neuroglia that are small phagocytic cells derived from circulating blood monoytes
aka defensive cells in CNS

microglia

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nueuroglia cells that help destroy invading pathogenic organisms or clear out cellular debris

microglia

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cells that have several branches and produce insulating myelin sheaths of CNS

oligodendrocytes

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ciliated cells that line spaces in the brain 9(ventricles) and central canal

ependymal cells

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neurilemmocyte that produces the myelin sheath of the PNS

schwann cell and satelite cells

34

outer surface of the schwann cell

neurilemma

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cells that surround/support the ganglia; regulare the environment around the neuron cell bodies

satelite cells

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clusters of neuron cell bodies occuring in the PNS

ganglia

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why is myelination important

speeds up transmission

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insulating layer of lipid combined iwht protein

myelin

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a flip flop of positive and negative chard on the inside and outside of the axon membrane

depolarization

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area on an axon that that lacks myelin

nodes

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what does an action potential do when it comes to a node? called?

it "jumps" called saltatory conduction

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an autoimmune disorder in which cells of the immune system fail to recognize the myelin as self and begins attacking it (demyelinating disease)

multiple sclerosis

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when an axon branches as it approaches the post synaptic cells, they give off collaterals called

telodendria

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a site of communication between 2 excitable cells

synapse

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transport in the wrong direction

retrograde

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transport that occurs in both directions

axoplasmic

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small neurons with no visible distinction between axons and dendrites

anaxonic neurons

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thses neurons occur in special sense organs (sight, smell, hearing)

bipolar neurons

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neurons that have dendrite and axon that are continuous (fused) and the cell body lies off to one side

unipolar neurons

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neurons that have 2 or more dendrites and one axon; most common

multipolar neurons

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neurons that conduct impulses from the skin muscle or viscera to the CNS

sensory or afferent neurons

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sensory receptors that monitor the digestive, resp, cardio, urinary, and reproductive system

interoceptors

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sensory receptors that proved info about the exter environment

exteroreceptors

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sensory receptors that monitor the position and movement of skeletal muscles and joints

proprioceptors

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neurons that complete the communication pathway between sensory and motor neurons

association neurons

56

where do the association cell bodies lie

CNS

57

neurons can be repaired under these conditions

-schwann cells are still active and intact
-cell body (soma) is undamaged

58

when the nucleus migrates to the periphery and Nissl bodies break down in a process

chromatolysis

59

axon distal to the site of injury degenerates along with myeling sheath

wallerian degeneration

60

what cells go to the site of degeneration to clean out debris

macrophages

61

regeneration of an injured axon involves synthesis of new

nissl bodies (as well as mRNA and rRNA)

62

what begins to multiply mitotically and form a tuve that bridges across the injured area

neurilemmocytes