What are the two factors that cause variation?
What is a make up of a cell?
Threre is a cell wall, containing cytoplasm and the nucleus of the cell. Inside the nucleus id chromosomes.
What is a chromosomes made up of?
It is made up of two lon gstrands that are coiled together to form a double helix. Between the strands are gene.s
What are the function of genes?
They send instructions to the cell so it can produce proteins structurally for the cell and also enzymes .
How many pair
chromosmes are ther in each cell?
How many chromosmes came from the mother and the father?
23 from each
What is an allele?
A version of a gene
what the two types of alleles?
Dominant and recessive
What is the name of two different alleles.
What is the meaning of a Genotype?
This refers to the combination of Alleles
What is the Phenotype?
This refers to the characteristics of the Alleles
What are the Alleles in human reproduction?
For the male it is X and Y where the Y Allele is smallerandmakes it different from X
Females just have two X Alleles
The Y Allele is dominant Allele
What is the cause of Huntington's disease?
It is a faulty dominant gene in the brain that causes gradual damge and it is fatal
What aer the symtoms of huntington's disease?
inability to concentrate
What causes cystic fibrosis?
Cystic fibrosis is a recessive disease that is caused by cell mebranes producing overly thick mucus that irritates and blocks the lungs and pancreas
What are the symptoms of Cystic Fibrosis?
difficulty digesting food
What ethical questions does Huntington's disease raise?
Whether or not to inform your employer?
what to tell your life insures?
Whether to tell your family?
Whether to have children?
What are some types of gentic testing before and after birth?
Amniocentesis- where cells are collected from the aminiotic fluid surrounding the fetus
Chrionic villus sampling- taking cells from the placenta
heel prick for blood test
What is unethical about IVF?
Embyros that possess genetic disorders may be discarded
What is Embryo screening or test in IVF known as?
Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis(PGD)
What is another risk, even if your are diagnosed as not having the disorder?
It could be a false negative , meaning they actually have the disorder. It could also be a false positive meaning the opposite
What is the definition for a clone?
An organism with identical DNA to another Organism
What is asexual reproduction?
This is where there is only one parent is needed.E.G. plants and bacteria
How do clones differ
When they are exposed to different environments
Advantages/disadvantages Of cloning and asexual reproduction
Characteristics are similsr in the offspring
plants can live isolation
there is no genetic variation
Diseases could easily wipeout society
How is cloning done?
The nucleus of the animal you are cloning is placed in a egg cell with no nucleus. Then it is implanted in the surrogate mother, Illegal to clone in UK
What is the process of cell specialisation?
What are uses of stem cells?
They could be used to test drugs
Understanding how differentiation works
Growing new oragans or rebuilding part of the sinal cord.