What is simple behaviour?
- This is behaviour, which is a common animal instincts
What is the importance of simple behaviour?
-helps animals to find food, shelter or am
-e.g. extrme temperatureate
-escape from predators
-avoid harmful environments
What is the problem with simple behaviour?
-animals with only simple behaviour, can't adjust easily to environmental change
earwigs in puddles
What is complex behaviour?
-can make decisions
-put on clothes when cold
-can adapt more easily to environmental change
- human/ mammals
What are some examples of simple reflexes in mammals?
-pupil becoming smaller int he presence of bright light
-inherited through genes
What are receptors?
-receptors detect stimuli or changes in the environment
-sound, light, texture,smell, temperature
-different types of receptors detect different stimuli
-moniter outside and internal temperature
What aresome newborn reflexes?
can learn to lose newborn reflexes
if not present at birth and still their when they shouldn't be, nervous system is not developing correctly
What are some types od receptors and sense organs?
-single cell receptors
-pain receptors in the skin
What is an effector?
-nervous and hormonal systems make effects occur
and make effectors
-short lived response, fast- nervous
-hormonal-long lasting, slower to occur- hormonal
What is the peripheral nervous system?
What is a neuron?
-like a normal cell has nucleus,cell membrane, cytoplasm
What is a reflex arc in the nervous system?
-impulse passes through areflex arc in the nervous system
What is the central nervous system?
-CNS links incoming stimuli with motro neurons
- motor neurons completes the reflex arc by stimulating effectors
- nerve impulse travels at 400m/s
Do synapsesslow down nerve impulses?
Yes, but the gap is 20 nanometers
impules at 15m/s over the gap
What is seratonin?
-released from particular synapses
gives feeling of happiness
-lack of seratonin linked to depression
How do some drugs affect the brain?
-Prozac causes seratonin concentration to build up
-some side effects
What affect does ecstacy have on the body?
gives pleasure like prozac
long term effects
can destroy synapses
permenent anxiety and depression
poor attention span, loss of memory
interferes with body temperature, control
slows production od ADH
can result in the body drowning itself internally
Whatg are beta blockers?
-these reduce transmissions of impulses across nerve synapses, stops the heart beat from speeding up
- given to people with angina
what parts of the brain provide what function?
What is the cereabral cortex?
-part of the brain that works when conscious
- responsible for intelligence, language
- mood- thoughts feelings
large in humans compared to animals
What was an early experiment on the brain?
-Canadian brain surgeon 1940, Wilder Penfield
Experimented on patients with epillepsy
-stimulated parts of the brain with electrical impulses
- watched for movement when different parts of the brain was stimulated
What is an MRI scan?
-colours parts of the brain with the most blood flow to it
- thes are the most active parts of the brain
What is Pavlov's dog experiiment?
-this a conditioned reflex or taught behaviour
What is an example of conditioning ?
-bird finds that bright insects are bitter
learn not to eat insects that are brightly coloured
What is an example of conscious control of reflexes?
-Teaching yourself not to drop ahot object
What are the ethical issues with scientific research on the brains?
Yes-improves theories about human learning
-devlop treatments for diseases and injuries
No- causes harm to the animal
-aids medical research
could cause death
How does learning happen?
-when something is lerening foe the first time a new connection is made between neurons
-when the information is learned again, the conneections become stronger
-babies develop pathways very quickly
- older people develop pathways just more slowly
How does repetition aid memory?
-strenghtens neural pathways
-practise makes perfect
what was the feral chlid?
-found in the french forests
wild about 12
brought to Paris
could only grunt and hiss
- only could eventually say a couple of words
What is short and lon term memory?
short- lasts 30 seconds
long- can last forever
how do we know memory is stored seperately?
effects only short term memory
coma-long term lost
What is the sensory memory store?
-remembering visual images, smells,
see the world in seperate photos
brain makes all the images continuous
sam with sound
What is the multistore memory model?
What is the working memory model?
-1972 fergus Craik and robert Lochart
-concluded multistore memory was too simple
-rehersal only one wat to transfer short to long term
-if you see a pattern
- if you understand the information
- if you process the information deeply
-stimulus linked to light smell, sound, colour
What is the active memory?
-short term memory is an active or working memory
- process info. thst you are consciously thinking of at that time
- communication between long and short term in both directions
- can keep info. until needed, store the rest for later