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Flashcards in B6 Deck (35)
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What is simple behaviour?

- This is behaviour, which is a common animal instincts

-involutary reflexes


-survival instincts


What is the importance of simple behaviour?

-helps animals to find food, shelter or am

-e.g. extrme temperatureate

-escape from predators

-avoid harmful environments


What is the problem with simple behaviour?


-animals with only simple behaviour, can't adjust easily to environmental change

earwigs in puddles


What is complex behaviour?

-can make decisions

 -put on clothes when cold

-can adapt more easily to environmental change

- human/ mammals



What are some examples of simple reflexes in mammals?

-gag reflex

-pupil becoming smaller int he presence of bright light

-inherited through genes


What are receptors?

-receptors detect stimuli or changes in the environment

-sound, light, texture,smell, temperature

-different types of receptors detect different stimuli

-moniter outside and internal temperature


What aresome newborn reflexes?

knee jerking



can learn to lose newborn reflexes

if not present at birth and still their when they shouldn't be, nervous system is not developing correctly


What are some types od receptors and sense organs?

-single cell receptors

-pain receptors in the skin

eye, vision



What is an effector?

-gland, musceles

-effector organs

-nervous and hormonal systems make effects occur

and make effectors

-short lived response, fast- nervous

-hormonal-long lasting, slower to occur- hormonal



What is the peripheral nervous system?


What is a neuron?

-like a normal cell has nucleus,cell membrane, cytoplasm


What is a reflex arc in the nervous system?

-impulse passes through areflex arc in the nervous system


What is the central nervous system?

-CNS links incoming stimuli with motro neurons

- motor neurons completes the reflex arc by stimulating effectors

- nerve impulse travels at 400m/s


Do synapsesslow down nerve impulses?

Yes, but the gap is 20 nanometers

impules at 15m/s over the gap


What is seratonin?

-released from particular synapses

gives feeling of happiness

-lack of seratonin linked to depression


How do some drugs affect the brain?

-Prozac causes seratonin concentration to build up


-some side effects


What affect does ecstacy have on the body?

-called MDMA

gives pleasure like prozac

long term effects 

can destroy synapses

permenent anxiety and depression

poor attention span, loss of memory

interferes with body temperature, control

slows production od ADH

can result in  the body drowning itself internally


Whatg are beta blockers?

-these reduce transmissions of impulses across nerve synapses, stops the heart beat from speeding up

- given to people with angina


what parts of the brain provide what function?


What is the cereabral cortex?


-part of the brain that works when conscious

- responsible for intelligence, language

and memory

- mood- thoughts feelings

large in humans compared to animals


What was an early experiment on the brain?

-Canadian brain surgeon 1940, Wilder Penfield

Experimented on patients with epillepsy

-stimulated parts of the brain with electrical impulses

- watched for movement when different parts of the brain was stimulated


What is an MRI scan? 

-colours parts of the brain with the most blood flow to it

- thes are the most active parts of the brain


What is Pavlov's dog experiiment?

-this a conditioned reflex or taught behaviour


What is an example of conditioning ? 

-bird finds that bright insects are bitter

learn not to eat insects that are brightly coloured

teaching pets


What is an example of conscious control of reflexes?

-Teaching yourself not to drop ahot object


What are the ethical issues with scientific research on the brains?

-Animal testing

Yes-improves theories about human learning 

-devlop treatments for diseases and injuries

No- causes harm to the animal

ill patients

-aids medical research

could cause death


How does learning happen?


-when something is lerening foe the first time a new connection is made between neurons

-when the information is learned again, the conneections become stronger

-babies develop pathways very quickly

- older people develop pathways just more slowly


How does repetition aid memory?

-strenghtens neural pathways 

-practise makes perfect


what was the feral chlid?


-found in the french forests

wild about 12

brought to Paris

taught languge

could only grunt and hiss

- only could eventually say a couple of words 


What is short and lon term memory?

short- lasts 30 seconds

long- can last forever