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Flashcards in B6 Deck (35):
1

What is simple behaviour?

- This is behaviour, which is a common animal instincts

-involutary reflexes

-automatic

-survival instincts

2

What is the importance of simple behaviour?

-helps animals to find food, shelter or am

-e.g. extrme temperatureate

-escape from predators

-avoid harmful environments

3

What is the problem with simple behaviour?

 

-animals with only simple behaviour, can't adjust easily to environmental change

earwigs in puddles

4

What is complex behaviour?

-can make decisions

 -put on clothes when cold

-can adapt more easily to environmental change

- human/ mammals

 

5

What are some examples of simple reflexes in mammals?

-gag reflex

-pupil becoming smaller int he presence of bright light

-inherited through genes

6

What are receptors?

-receptors detect stimuli or changes in the environment

-sound, light, texture,smell, temperature

-different types of receptors detect different stimuli

-moniter outside and internal temperature

7

What aresome newborn reflexes?

knee jerking

grasping

stepping

can learn to lose newborn reflexes

if not present at birth and still their when they shouldn't be, nervous system is not developing correctly

8

What are some types od receptors and sense organs?

-single cell receptors

-pain receptors in the skin

eye, vision

 

9

What is an effector?

-gland, musceles

-effector organs

-nervous and hormonal systems make effects occur

and make effectors

-short lived response, fast- nervous

-hormonal-long lasting, slower to occur- hormonal

 

10

What is the peripheral nervous system?

11

What is a neuron?

-like a normal cell has nucleus,cell membrane, cytoplasm

12

What is a reflex arc in the nervous system?

-impulse passes through areflex arc in the nervous system

13

What is the central nervous system?

-CNS links incoming stimuli with motro neurons

- motor neurons completes the reflex arc by stimulating effectors

- nerve impulse travels at 400m/s

14

Do synapsesslow down nerve impulses?

Yes, but the gap is 20 nanometers

impules at 15m/s over the gap

15

What is seratonin?

-released from particular synapses

gives feeling of happiness

-lack of seratonin linked to depression

16

How do some drugs affect the brain?

-Prozac causes seratonin concentration to build up

-anti-depressent

-some side effects

17

What affect does ecstacy have on the body?

-called MDMA

gives pleasure like prozac

long term effects 

can destroy synapses

permenent anxiety and depression

poor attention span, loss of memory

interferes with body temperature, control

slows production od ADH

can result in  the body drowning itself internally

18

Whatg are beta blockers?

-these reduce transmissions of impulses across nerve synapses, stops the heart beat from speeding up

- given to people with angina

19

what parts of the brain provide what function?

20

What is the cereabral cortex?

 

-part of the brain that works when conscious

- responsible for intelligence, language

and memory

- mood- thoughts feelings

large in humans compared to animals

21

What was an early experiment on the brain?

-Canadian brain surgeon 1940, Wilder Penfield

Experimented on patients with epillepsy

-stimulated parts of the brain with electrical impulses

- watched for movement when different parts of the brain was stimulated

22

What is an MRI scan? 

-colours parts of the brain with the most blood flow to it

- thes are the most active parts of the brain

23

What is Pavlov's dog experiiment?

-this a conditioned reflex or taught behaviour

24

What is an example of conditioning ? 

-bird finds that bright insects are bitter

learn not to eat insects that are brightly coloured

teaching pets

25

What is an example of conscious control of reflexes?

-Teaching yourself not to drop ahot object

26

What are the ethical issues with scientific research on the brains?

-Animal testing

Yes-improves theories about human learning 

-devlop treatments for diseases and injuries

No- causes harm to the animal

ill patients

-aids medical research

could cause death

27

How does learning happen?

 

-when something is lerening foe the first time a new connection is made between neurons

-when the information is learned again, the conneections become stronger

-babies develop pathways very quickly

- older people develop pathways just more slowly

28

How does repetition aid memory?

-strenghtens neural pathways 

-practise makes perfect

29

what was the feral chlid?

-1799

-found in the french forests

wild about 12

brought to Paris

taught languge

could only grunt and hiss

- only could eventually say a couple of words 

30

What is short and lon term memory?

short- lasts 30 seconds

long- can last forever

31

how do we know memory is stored seperately?

Alzheimers

effects only short term memory

coma-long term lost

32

What is the sensory memory store?

-remembering visual images, smells,

see the world in seperate photos

brain makes all the images continuous

sam with sound 

33

What is the multistore memory model?

34

What is the working memory model?

-

 

-1972 fergus Craik and robert Lochart

-concluded multistore memory was too simple 

-rehersal only one wat to transfer short to long term

-if you see a pattern

- if you understand the information

- if you process the information deeply

-stimulus linked to light smell, sound, colour

 

35

What is the active memory?

-short term memory is an active or working memory

- process info. thst you are consciously thinking  of at that time

- communication between long and short term in both directions

- can keep info. until needed, store the rest for later