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What are the fraction in fractional distillation?


What Does increasing the length of polymer chain do?

-Increases the boiling point, more viscosity, dark in colour,

polymers with less than 5 carbon are uaually a gas

more flexiblity

stronger intermolecular forces


What is cross linking?

This wher polymers are combined with other polymers in a cross link of covalent bonds to increase strength 

Eg. rubber for tires

added sulphur


What is crystallization?

Process of partial alignment of the polymers

chain fold together and form ordered llamellae

higher density of polymers

increased strength

limited flexiblity

-Freezer draws


What is a plasticiser?

-added to polymers to increase strength and flexibility, and durability

-most common plasticiers phthalate esters

space out chains to makes them more flexible and less britle


What is Nanotechnolgy?

10 to the -9

1 billionth of a meter

can cure cancer, used to make vaccines

used to increase strngth without weight

silver particles added to socks to absorb sweat

in suncream