B2.1.5 - Cell Differentiation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in B2.1.5 - Cell Differentiation Deck (14):

What does it mean when a cell differentiates?

It means it is becoming specialised to perform a job


What happens when a cell becomes specialised?

Its structure changes so that it is better adapted to perform its function.


Why are specialised cells more efficient compared to other cells?

Life processes are carried out more effectively as the cell has adapted to that certain job.


Give an example of a cell that is in the human body that is specialised for only one job.

Nerve cells
Fat cells
Red blood cells


Give an example of a cell that is in a plant that is specialised for only one job.

Root cells
Leaf palisade cells


What are sperm cells specialised to?

Transferring genetic material from the male to the ovum.


How have sperm cells adapted?

Flagellum - for movement
Lots of mitochondria - needs energy for movement
Acrosome - stores digestive enzymes which break down the outer layers of the ovum


What are fat cells specialised to do?

Store fat so it can be used later as a store of energy
Provide insulation for animals
To form a protective layer around some organs like the heart


How have fat cells adapted?

By having a small layer of cytoplasm surrounding a fat reservoir. They can expand up to 1000 times their original size as they fill with fat.


What are red blood cells specialised to do?

Transport oxygen around the body


How have red blood cells adapted?

Biconcave discs - they are pushed in on both sides to form a. Biconcave shape, which increase the surface area to volume ratio, speeding up the diffusion of oxygen into the cell, and carbon dioxide out.
Haemoglobin - this protein binds to oxygen to form oxyhaemoglobin
No nucleus - more space more haemoglobin molecules


Describe ciliated cells.

You have ciliated cells in your airways, and in between these cells is goblet cells which produce sticky mucus. This traps dirt and bacteria. The cilia (tiny hairs) on the top of the cells sweep the mucus away from your lungs to the back of your throat, where it is swallowed so the bacteria is killed in the stomach.


What are palisade cells specialised for?

Carrying out photosynthesis


How have they adapted?

They are found near the surface of the leaf and are packed with chloroplasts, which is where photosynthesis happens. They have a regular shape to allow close packing within the leaf, maximising the absorption of the sunlight.