B5c: Running repairs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in B5c: Running repairs Deck (24):
1

What are the consequences of a hole in the heart(2)

blood can move directly from one side of the heart to the other side of the heart

less oxygen in the arterial blood since oxygenated blood and deoxygenated blood mix

2

How can a hole in the heart be corrected

open heart surgery

3

Why do unborn babies not need a double circulatory system(3)

they get their oxygen from their mother via the placenta, so their blood doesn't need to travel to the lungs
-as a result all unborn babies have a hole in the heart, which allows blood to by pass lungs
-this hole in the heart closes soon after birth

4

What are the consequences of damaged or weak valves in the heart

may allow blood to flow in both directions(no longer prevents backflow) - blood doesn't circulate as effectively

5

How can damaged or weak valves in the heart be fixed

replacing them with artificial vavles

6

Explain the consequences of a blocked coronary artery

reduces blood flow to the heart muscles, which may result in a heart attack

7

How can a blocked coronary artery be fixed

by bypass surgery(blood vessel is taken from another part of the body and inserted to bypass the blockage)

8

What does heart assist devices do

takes over the pumping duties of a failing heart, buying time while the patient waits for a transplant

9

What are the advantages of using heart pacemakers or artificial heart valves over a heart transplant(2)

no chance of getting rejected(body does not recognise the metal or plastic as foreign)

lass drastic and a lot quicker than a transplant

10

What are the disadvantages of using heart pacemakers or artificial heart valves over a heart transplant

may not last very long and need replacing

11

What are used to control clotting and why

drugs such as warfarin, heparin and aspirin

blood clotting can block blood vessels in some medical conditions

12

Describe haemophilia

an inherited condition in which the blood does not easily clot

13

Describe the process of blood cloctting(3)

platelets in contact with damaged blood vessels

causes a series of chemical reactions

eventually leading to the formation of a mesh of fibrin fibres (clot)

14

Describe the processes of blood donation(3)

collects blood from a volunteer

anti-coagulant drugs such as heparin are used

blood group and rhesus information is recorded

15

Describe the processes of blood transfusion

puts the correct blood type into the patient's blood system, replacing blood lost

16

What can unsuccessful blood transfusions cause(2)

if the transfused blood is incompatible with the blood in the body then it causes agglutination(blood clumping)
-caused by if anti-A antibody meets an A antigen or anti-B antibody meets a B antigen

17

What determines how blood groups react and therefore whether a blood transfusion is successful

the presence of antigens and antibodies in red blood cells and blood serum

18

Where are antigens found

on red blood cells' surface

19

Where are antibodies found

in blood plasma

20

Describe blood group A (antigens, antibodies, can give blood to..., can get blood from....)

A

anti-B

can give to A and AB

can get from A and O

21

Describe blood group B (antigens, antibodies, can give blood to..., can get blood from....)

B

anti-A

can give to B and AB

can get from B and O

22

Describe blood group AB (antigens, antibodies, can give blood to..., can get blood from....)

A and B

none

can give to AB

can get from anyone

23

Describe blood group O (antigens, antibodies, can give blood to..., can get blood from....)

none

anti-A and anti-B

can give to anyone

can get from O

24

Why can people with blood type O give to anyone but only receive from others with blood type O(2)

can give to anyone since there are no antigens on their blood cells, so any anti-A or anti-B antibodies have nothing to react with

can only receive from others with blood type O since their antibodies would react with the antigens in type A, B or AB blood