B5h: Growth and repair Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in B5h: Growth and repair Deck (16):

How can diet and exercise influence growth? (2)

if lack of ­proteins (to grow and repair/make new cells) or ­minerals (bone growth), child may not grow as much as its genes allow

exercise stimulates release of growth hormone + builds muscle, weight­bearing exercise +bone mass


What are extremes of height usually caused by?

genes or hormone imbalance


Describe human growth hormone (2)

produced by pituitary gland

stimulates general growth, espeically in long bones


How does a feotus grow?

different parts of foetus and baby grow at different rates (brain grows +rate than rest of body because large, well­developed brain is a survival advantage)


What measurement of a baby are taken during their first months and why? (3+1)



head size

to provide early warning of growth problems


How are average growth charts used? (2)

baby's growth compared w/ range of average values/percentiles to identify obesity, malnutrition, dwarfism,...

based on average of population; not everyone's growth follows the pattern so only concern if large difference or if inconsistent pattern (small baby w/ large head)


Possible causes of the increase in life expectancy during recent times (4)

industrial disease (asbestosis), ­accidents in workplace

+healthy life style + diet with less ­cases of vitamin/mineral deficiency

modern treatments/cures for previous fatal disease (vaccinations prevent many infectious diseases)

better housing, safer, healthier


Possible consequences of more people living longer (3)

icnrease population, shortages of housing and +environmental pollution

+old people, +stress on pension bill, state might not be able to give pensions to everyone; +retirement age

older people have +medical problems, need +care, +stress on healthcare, +cost to taxpayer


Problems in supply of donor organs(2)

shortage of donors

person needing transplant must wait long time for organ meeting criteria - tissue match, size, age


Problems of using mechanical replacements (4)

large, difficult to transport/implant kidney dialysis machines

need constant power supply; battery life of pacemakers 7 - ­10 years, must be replaced

must use materials that are strong (titanium); does not react with body fluids (inert: titanium/ plastic) nor degrade/rust

still can cause inflammation/allergic reactions


Ethical issues concerning organ donation (4)

bodies to be buried intact - wrong to give organs

life/death up to God (wrong to receive organs)

doctors might not save someone if critically ill because their organs could be used for transplant

people pressured into donating


Problems with transplants (2)

immune system may reject foreign transplanted organ

tissue matching and immuno­-suppressive drug treatment reduces ­risk of rejection but increases risk of infection


Why can donors be living

you can live without whole/parts of certain organs (e.g. kidney/piece of liver)


what makes a suitable living donor?(4)

over 18

young, organ fit/healthy

similar body weight so organ fits

tissue match to prevent rejection


Criteria needed for a dead person to be a suitable donor (5)

young, organ fit/healthy

similar body weight so organ fits

tissue match to prevent rejection

died recently because organs only stay usable for few hours outside body

permission from relatives


Advantages and disadvantages of a register of donors (1+2)

register if willing, personal choice

still need family consent

opt­out system easier for doctors to use organs of dead people; anyone's organs can be used unless person has opted out