B5d: Respiratory systems Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in B5d: Respiratory systems Deck (15):

Why are amphibians and fish restricted to their habitats(3)

because of their methods of gaseous exchange
-amphibians does not have waterproof skin, so it would lose too much water if it lived in a dry habitat, so they are confined to moist habitats
-fish gills work by forcing water across filaments, and the gill filaments would stick together if they weren't in water and the fish would suffocate, so they can only live in water


How do humans breath in(inspirate)(3)

intercostal muscles and diaphram contracts, ribs move up and out and diaphram moves down, increasing the chest volume
-causes the lung to expand and the pressure within to decrease

higher outside pressure causes air to enter the lungs


How do humans breath out(expirate)(3)

intercostal muscles and diaphram relaxes, ribs move down and inward and diaphram moves up, decreasing the chest volume
-causes the lung to contract and the pressure within to increase

higher pressure within the lungs forces the air out


What is the total lung capacity

total volume of air you can fit in your lungs


What is the tidal air

volume of air you breathe in or out at rest


What is the residual air

the air left in your lungs after you breathe air which cannot be forced out


What is the vital capacity air(2)

the amount of usable air/maximum volume of air that can be breathed in or out

total lung capacity - residual air


Where and how does gaseous exchange occur(2)

occurs within the alveoli(air sacs)

occurs due to diffusion between the air and the blood capillaries around the alveoli since there is a concentration gradient


How are gaseous exchange surfaces (e.g. alveoli) adapted for gas exchange(5)

very large surface area to increase the rate of diffusion

moist surface to help oxygen and carbon dioxide dissolve

permeable surface to help gases exchange easily

thin lining(one cell thick) so gases don't have to diffuse very far

good blood supply to maintain the concentration gradient


How does the respiratory system protects itself from disease(3)

the trachea and bronchi are lined with mucus(produced by goblet cells) and ciliated cells
-mucus catches dust and microbes before they reach the line
-cilia sweeps microbe-filled mucus away from the lungs as phlegm


Describe some causes of lung diseases and describe the examples(2+2+2)

Industrial causes
-abestos causes a disease called abestosis, which is where inflammation and scarring in the lungs limits gas exchange

Genetic causes
-cystic fibrosis which is inherited, causes the lungs to produce too much mucus in the bronchioles, making breathing difficult

Life style
-smoking causes lung cancer, where cells grow rapidly and divide out of control, forming a tumour and reducing the surface area in the lungs


Why is the respiratory system prone to diseases

the lungs are a dead end, meaning microbes can't easily be flushed out


What are some symptoms of asthma

difficulty breathing, wheezing, tight chest


How can the symptoms of asthma be relieved

inhaling a drug from an inhaler


Describe what happens during an asthma attack(4)

lining of airways becomes inflamed

fluid builds up in airways

muscles around bronchioles contract constricting airways.

all of these makes it difficult to breathe