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Flashcards in B6 Beyond The Microscope Deck (92)
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0

What is the average size of a bacteria cell.

A few microns or a thousandth of a mm long

1

What is a microbe?

A microscopic organism

2

What is a pathogen ?

A disease causing bacteria

3

What part of a bacteria helps it to move?

Flagellum it tail or whip like

4

What does a bacteria not have?

Nucleus. It has DNA strands inside instead

5

Where can bacteria survive?

Anywhere, they adapt to their environment

6

What are the four types of classified bacteria?

Cocci
Bacilli
Vibrio
Sprilli

7

What shape is cocci bacteria?

Spherical balls

8

What shape is bacilli bacteria?

Rods

9

What shape is vibrio bacteria?

Curved rods or v shape

10

What shape is spirilli bacteria?

Spiral shaped much like a spring

11

What does a Bactria not have (4things)

Chloroplasts
Vacuole
Nucleus
Mitochondria

12

In what way do bacteria multiply?

Binary fission they do it exponentially

13

How is bacteria grown?

In perti dishes in agar fell. It is done in an incubator it increase the speed. the lab needs to be sterile to stop cross contamination and infections
Aseptic techniques are used.

14

What technique needs to be used when culturing bacteria

Aseptic techniques

15

Why do we use aseptic techniques when handling bacteria

To protect from infection and the agar gel being contaminated by microbes

16

What is the aseptic technique. How do you do it?

4points

Wear gloves
Sterilize
Seal the perti dish
Dispose of bacteria safely.

17

How is yogurt made?
5 stages

1.Milk is pasteurized to kill microorganisms
2.Starter culture is added(lactobacillus)
3.Mixture incubated in fermenter
4.Bacteria break down lactose sugar into lactic acid and the milk clots and solidifies
5. Flat ours added

18

What is the structure of a virus

It is not a cell. It has strands of genetic material surrounded by a protein coat. The come in many shapes and sizes.

19

How do viruses reproduce

Inside living cells .they attack specific host cells

20

How does a virus reproduce.. Stages

1.attaches to the host cell and injects genetic material
2. Uses the host cell to make new viruses inside
3. The host cell splits releasing the new viruses

21

How can diseases be transmitted
4 ways

FOOD. Food poisoning
WATER .cholera
AIRBORNE . Influenza
CONTACT . Athletes foot

22

List the 4 stages in an infectious disease.

1. The microorganism entered the body
2. The reproduces rapidly
3. This is the incubation period and the organisms produce toxins which damage cells and tissues
4. The toxins cause symptoms

23

What does an antiseptic do

Cleans wounds and surfaces outside the body.

It prevents infection not treat it

24

What's an antibiotics job

A drug that's used inside the body to treat infected patients .

It only kills bacteria

25

How does yeast respire?

Anaerobically or are aerobically

26

When yeast respire anaerobically it is fermentation, what is made and used?

Glucose = ethanol + carbon dioxide

27

What does yeasts growth rate depend on (4)

Warmth
Amount of food or yeast
Build up of waste toxins
Ph balance

28

What makes sandy soil so special

It's made up of large particles and has large air gaps

High air content and very permeable.

29

What is clay soils structure like?

Tiny particles with small pores.

Low air content and low permeability

30

What is the structure of loam soils

Mixture of sand and clay.
The structure depends on the amounts of each particles

31

How is cheese made?

Milk + enzymes + lactobacillus = cheese(curds and whey)

32

How is silage made?

Vegetation or grass + lactobacillus = silage

33

What is the process of making silage called?

Fermentation

34

How is vinegar made ?

Wine. Wine vinegar
Cider + acetobacter = cider vinegar
Beer Malt vinegar

35

What do silage cheese and yoghurt all have in common?

They all preserve food
(Milk or grass)

36

What is the components of soil

Humus(decomposed dead organic matter)
Air
Water
Organisms

37

How is yoghurt made? 4 stages

1. Sterilise equipment
2. Pasteurise milk( 72 degrees 15secs) kill bacteria
3. Add lactobacillus form previous batch and incubate
4. add colours flavours

38

What is the process of making yoghurt?

Ocidifies

39

What does lactobacillus do in yoghurt making?

Milk contains lactose sugar this is broken down by lactobacillus and turns into lactic acid

40

What happens to milks acidity as it turns into yoghurt?

Ph decreases acidity increases

41

How does a virus reproduce?

Inside other living cells, they use specific host cells

42

What's different about viruses

They have strands on genetic material inside a protein coat

43

How can diseases be transmitted? 4 ways

Food food poisoning
Water cholera
Airborne influenza
Contact athletes foot

44

How can poor sanitation link to disease?

Clean water supplies means low disease vice versa
Education helps stop disease eg flu education
Developing countries

45

4 stages of infectious disease..

Microorganism entered the body
It reproduces rapidly
Toxins produced
Toxins produce symptoms

46

What's an antiseptic

Cleans wounds and surfaces

47

What does an antibiotic do?

Pills. Kills bacteria

48

How does bacteria become resistant to antibiotics

Not following the whole course of pills
Mutations in the cells so they don't get affected by the biotics
MRSA is one of these

49

What do Louis Pasteur do?

Came up with the germ theory

50

What did Joseph lister do?

Used the first antiseptic in surgery.

51

What do Alexander Fleming discover?

Antibiotic penicillin by accident

52

How does yeast respire

Anaerobically without oxygen

53

What four things does yeast growth rate depend on?

Temp
Amount of food
Toxin build up
Ph level

54

What do worms in the soil do

Neutralise acid
Mix the soil
Improve nutrients
Reduce chances of flooding

55

Define detris

Dead and decaying matter

56

Define detrivore

Organism that feeds on detris break up the matter and help decomposes do their job
Eg, earthworm wood louse maggots

57

Define decomposes

In ecosystems they break down material they are usually fungi or bacteria. They release nutrients back into the soil to be reused.

58

What's the best conditions for fast decay?

Warm, moist and oxygen rich

59

What is a saphrotroph?

The first stage of decay
They produce enzymes to break down dead matter to release nutrients

60

How do bacteria and fungi feed?

Saphrotrophically

61

What is lightning a purpose in the nitrogen cycle?

To convert atmospheric nitrogen into nitrates

62

What does nitrifying bacteria do?

Convert ammonia into nitrates

63

What does denitrifying bacteria do?

Converts nitrates into nitrogen

64

What does nitrogen fixing bacteria do.

Lives in roots of legumes and fixes nitrogen

65

Define legumes And how they use nitrogen

They are self sufficient (peas clover lupine) they don't need nitrifying bacteria that other plants need. They rely on nitrogen fixing bacteria in root nodules to convert nitrogen into nitrates.

66

List 4 advantages of living in water

No water shortage
Less temp variation
Provides support eg jellyfish
Wast disposal easy

67

List 3 disadvantages of living in water

More resistant to movement
Manual water regulation required
Lots of chemicals

68

Define grazing food web

Photosynthetic producers common on ocean surface, lots of light

69

Define detritral food chains

In deeper oceans with no light it uses detrivores

70

Name the process in which food chains start form bacteria which get energy from chemical reactions

Chemosynthesis
(Hydrothermal vents)

71

What is a microscopic plant in the sea?

Phytoplankton
Diatoms dinoflagellates cyanobacteria

72

What is microscopic animals in the sea called?

Zoo plankton
Dinoflagellates copepods krill daphnia

73

What does plankton rely on?

Water currents to move.
They are producers in food chains

74

What do seasonal variations of plankton depend on?

Light nutrients and temp

75

Define amoeba and their characteristics

Heterotrophs and live in fresh water whilst feeding of other organisms
They have a contractile vacuole to move nutrients

76

How does a contractile vacuole work (amoeba)

It gets larger and fills with excess fluid this is then discharged outside the cell. The vacuole continues this process

77

Name a property of fish skin

Impermeable to water so places a barrier between the body and the outside water

78

How do fresh water fish do osmotic regulation?

Water is gained, salts lost passively. Salts pumped in at gills. They have lots of Dilute urine

79

How do salt water fish use osmotic regulation?

Water lost passively at the gills

80

How is water polluted?

Oil, Sewage
Fertilisers (eutrophication)
Detergents, acid rain
PCB or DDT chemical

81

What does non bio washing downer contain?

Chemicals that break up stains on clothesw

82

What does biological washing powder contain?

Chemicals and enzymes to break down stubborn stains of starch protein or fats

83

How do diabetic testers use enzymes?

Reagent strips change colour is glucose or sugar is present. iTunes a sequence of enzyme reactions which causes. Chemical to change colour in the strip

84

How is pectinase used in the food industry

Fruit juice extraction. It breaks down pectin in the cell wall causing the cells to release juice

85

How is rennet used in the food industry

It clots milk in the fist stages of cheese making

86

How is sucrase or invertase used in the food industry

Sucrose help sweeten food.
The enzyme sucrase breaks sucrose into glucose and fructose with is much sweeter. Is is used it diets and low calorie foods as it's sweeter with less sugar

87

Define immobilising

Using but not taking with you
it is done with enzymes

88

What is an advantage if immobilising enzymes

They don't contaminate the product
When in alginate beads they are used in a continuous flow process

89

People who are lactose intolerant are missing a enzyme what is it?

Lactase in the digestive system

90

What happens in a lactose intolerant persons stomach if they drink milk?

The lactose is not broken down by lactase but fermented by the bacteria. This causes abdominal pains wind and diarrhoea

91

How is lactose free milk made?

It is made using immobilized lactase which is missing form a lactose intolerant person. They lactose is broken down into glucose and galactose which can be digested