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Flashcards in Back and Neck Muscles Deck (69)
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1

What are the attachments of sternocleidomastoid (SCM)?

  • S: mastoid process
  • I: sternum (sternal head)
  • I: clavicle (clavicular head)

2

What are the actions of sternocleidomastoid?

  • contralateral rotation of the head and neck
  • ipsilateral lateral flexion of the head and neck
  • flexion of the neck (if the head/neck is in neutral or flexed)
  • extension of the head (if the head is already extended)
  • assists with inspiration
  • anterior translation of head on neck

3

What are the borders and contents of the Anterior Cervical Triangle

  • base: mandible
  • lateral border: SCM
  • medial border: midsagittal plane of the neck
  • contents: muscles, arteries, veins, lymph nodes, viscera, thyroid and parathyroid glands

4

What are the borders, floor and contents of the Posterior Cervical Triangle?

  • base: clavicle
  • anterior: SCM (posterior aspect)
  • posterior border: trapezius
  • floor:
    • splenius capitis
    • levator scapula
    • middle scalenes
    • posterior scalenes
    • omohyoid
    • brachial plexus
    • subclavian artery and vein
  • contents: blood vessels and nerves

5

Where is the larynx located and what does it do?

  • location: just inferior to where the pharynx splits into the trachea and the esophagus
  • does voice production (Adam's apple is formed by the thyroid cartilage)

6

What are the suprahyoid muscles?

  • mylohyoid
  • geniohyoid
  • stylohyoid
  • digastric (anterior and posterior bellies)

7

What are the general actions of the suprahyoid muscles?

  • superior attachments fixed: elevate the hyoid bone
  • hyoid fixed: assist in depressing (lowering) the mandible

8

What are the infrahyoid muscles?

  • sternohyoid
  • sternothyroid
  • thyrohyoid
  • omohyoid

9

What are the general actions of the infrahyoid muscles?

depress the hyoid bone

10

What are the two-headed muscles of the hyoids?

  • digastric (anterior and posterior bellies)
  • omohyoid (superior and inferior bellies)

11

Which muscle group attaches the hyoid to the skull?

suprahyoids

12

The prefix "omo" refers to:

the shoulder (inferior belly of omohyoid attaches to superior border of he scapula near the suprascapular notch)

13

What's between the muscle bellies of each of the two-headed hyoid muscles?

intermediate tendons

14

What are the muscles of the superficial layer of the back?

  • trapezius
  • latissimus dorsi
  • levator scapula
  • rhomboid major (and minor)

15

What are the intermediate muscles of the back, and what do they do?

accessory muscles of respiration

  • serratus posterior superior
  • serratus posterior inferior

16

What muscles are in the superficial layer of the deep back muscles?

  • splenius capitis
  • splenius cervicis

17

What muscles are in the intermediate layer of the deep back muscles?

3 columns of muscles collectively called the erector spinae (aka paraspinals). Medial to lateral, they are:

  • spinalis
  • longissimus
  • iliocostalis

18

What muscles are in the deep layer of the deep back muscles and have a superomedial fibre direction?

(collectively called the transversospinalis muscles) from superficial to deep:

  • semispinalis (capitis, cervicis, thoracis)
  • multifidus
  • rotatores

19

What muscles are in the deep layer of the deep back muscles and have a vertical fibre direction?

  • interspinales
  • intertransversarii

20

Where are the muscles in the deep layer of the deep back muscles, and generally where do they attach?

superomedial or vertical fibre direction

  • found in the groove between the spinous and transverse processes (the laminar groove)
  • some (SMR) attach from the TVP to the SP of a superior vertebrae
  • some (inters) attach from SP-SP or TVP-TVP

21

What are the attachments of serratus posterior superior? What is it deep to? Superficial to?

  • M: SPs of C7-T3
  • L: superior borders of ribs 2-5
  • deep to rhomboids
  • superficial to erector spinae

22

What are the attachments of serratus posterior inferior? What is it deep to? Superficial to?

  • M: SPs of T11-L2
  • L: lower 4 ribs
  • deep to latissiumus/thoracolumbar fascia
  • superficial to the erector spinae

23

What are the actions of serratus posterior superior?

elevates ribs 2-5 (supports breathing -- forced inspiration)

24

What are the actions of serratus posterior inferior?

draws ribs down and back (with forced expiration -- coughing, sneezing, blowing nose...)

25

What does splenium mean?

bandage (gr.)

26

What are the attachments and actions of splenius capitis?

  • I: SPs of C4-T2
  • S: mastoid process and lateral superior nuchal line
  • unilateral contraction: ipsilateral rotation
  • bilateral contraction: extension of the neck

27

What are the attachments and actions of splenius cervicis?

  • S: C1-C4 TVPs (posterior tubercles)
  • I: SPs of T3-T5
  • unilateral contraction: ipsilateral rotation
  • bilateral contraction: extension of the neck

28

What's the general location, structure and direction of the intermediate back muscles?

  • arise inferiorly from the thoracolumbar fascia and spread out in a superolateral direction
  • are subdivided into 3 columns of muscles on either side of the spine and each column has 3 segments

29

What are the shortest and longest columns of the paraspinals (aka erector spinae)?

  • shortest: spinalis
  • longest: longissimus

30

What are the divisions of spinalis, generally where are they located and generally where to they attach?

(very thin) 

  • sit in the laminar groove
  • thoracis, cervicis, capitis
  • attach to the SPs