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T1 & T2 Anatomy > The Spine > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Spine Deck (84)
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1

How many total vertebrae are there, and how many are movable?

33 total; 24 moveable

2

What are the segments of the spine, and how many vertebrae are in each segment?

cervical - 7
thoracic - 12
lumbar - 5
sacrum - 5 fused
coccyx - 4 fused (actually between 3-5, but we say 4)

3

What kind of discs are intervertebral discs? i.e. what are they made of?

fibrocartilagenous discs

4

What's the key function of intervertebral discs?

weight bearing (not much to do with movement)

5

What's the naming convention for each disc?

named for the 2 vertebrae that it sits between

6

Are there discs between all vertebrae?

no disc between C1 and C2

7

What's the name of the outer layer of the disc?

annulus fibrosis

8

Approximately how much of the total length of the vertebral column is made up of discs?

about 25%

9

What's the jelly-like inner substance of the disc called?

nucleus pulposus

10

Does the disc have a nerve or blood supply?

-aneural except in the peripheral 1/3rd
-avascular

11

What are the terms that describe each section of curvature in the spine?

cervical - lordotic (lordos = curve forward)
thoracic - kyphotic (kyphos = humpback)
lumbar - lordotic
sacral - kyphotic

12

If there is an excessive forward curve in a section of the spine, the term would be...

-hyperlordotic for excessive forward curve
-hyperkyphotic for excessive humpback curve

13

Which spinal sections are termed primary and secondary and why?

-thoracic and sacral curves are termed primary because they develop during the fetal period
-cervical and lumbar are termed secondary because they don't start until the baby lifts its head, then further when the child starts walking

14

What's the aka for intervertebral joints?

zygapophysial joints

15

The arch of a vertebra is formed anteriorly by the:

pedicles (project posteriorly from both sides of the superior part of the vertebral body)

16

The area between the superior and inferior articular processes:

pars interarticularis

17

The aka for C1 vertebra

atlas

18

The aka for C2 vertebra

axis

19

The most common fracture site of a typical vertebra

pars interarticularis

20

The transverse foramen of the atlas allows for passage of the:

vertebral artery

21

The vertebral artery passes superiorly through the transverse foramen, then medially past the ___ before reaching the skull

groove for the vertebral artery (in the atlas)

22

What's the aka for the dens?

odontoid process

23

On which vertebra would you find the dens?

C2 (axis)

24

Which vertebrae are considered upper and lower cervical spine?

upper: C1, C2
lower: C3-C7

25

Which vertebrae are "atypical"?

C1 and C2

26

What makes C1 vertebra atypical?

-no vertebral body
-no spinous process
-anterior arch
-posterior arch
-articular facet for the dens
-tubercles for transverse ligament of the atlas
-2 lateral masses (TVPs are projections from the lateral masses)
-transverse foramen allows passage of the vertebral artery
-groove for the vertebral artery

27

What makes C2 vertebra atypical?

-dens (aka odontoid process)
-anterior articular facet (on the dens)
-posterior articular facet (on the dens -- for the transverse ligament of the atlas)

28

What special features do vertebrae C2-C6 have in common?

their SPs are bifid

29

The aka for the SP of C7

vertebra prominens

30

What are the upward bony projections on the posterolateral rims of the vertebral bodies of the lower cervical spine?

uncinate processes