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Principles of dizzees > Bacteria > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bacteria Deck (27):
1

What genetic material is found inside a bacterium?

Single chromosome

No nucleus

2

What colour will Gram positive and gram negative bacteria show, when stained?

Positive = Purple

Negative = Red

3

What are the differences in the structure of Gram positive and negative bacteria?

Positive - thick peptidoglycan (murein) wall

Negative - thin peptidoglycan (murein) wall + outer membrane

4

What is the outer membrane made of, in gram negative bacteria?

Lipopolysaccharides + proteins

5

In a bacterial cell, what separates the inner membrane from the peptidoglycan wall?

Periplasmic space

6

What shape does 'cocci' signify?

Spherical

7

What shape does 'bacilli' mean?

Rod shaped

8

What purpose does the murein / peptidoglycan wall serve?

Strength and shape

9

What protein molecules are present on the surface of bacteria, that are involved with forming cross links?

Penicillin binding proteins

10

What surface feature gives bacteria motility?

Flagellum

11

What surface feature is used by bacteria to attach to cells?

Fimbriae

12

What is the purpose of capsules?

Prevents the bacterium from being engulfed by phagocytes

13

What does monotrichous mean?

Single flagellum on bacterial cell

14

What does Peritrichous mean?

Flagella all over the cell

15

What does Amphitrichous mean?

Flagella on both sides of the bacterium

16

What does Lophotrichous mean?

Tuft of flagella from one place on bacterium

17

What is the basic purpose of spores?

Contains protected 'version' of bacterium + nutrients which can grow later

18

What are plasmids?

Circular loops of DNA
Not in the chromosome

19

Plasmids can be transferred from one bacterial cell to another. What structure allows this to take place?

Pillus

20

In terms of plasmid transfer, what is a promiscuous bacterium?

One that can pass a plasmid to either a gram positive or gram negative bacterial cell

21

What is the name given to the gene transfer using pillus's and plasmids?

Conjugation

22

How do bacterial cells replicate?

Binary fission

23

What are the 3 ways that bacteria transfer DNA?

Conjugation
Transformation
Transduction

24

What is transformation?

When a bacteria is surrounded by DNA, it takes up some of the DNA hat contains advantageous genes

25

Bacteriophages attach to bacterium using what two features?

End plate
Tail fibres

26

Describe the structure of a bacteriophage.

Head
Collar
]Tail
End plate
Tail fibres

(+genetic info etc)

27

What two things make up the names of strains of bacteria?

Genus and species