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Flashcards in Outline of disease process Deck (12):
1

What are the 3 types of carcinogens, responsible for the initiation stage of cancer?

Chemical
Physical
Viral

2

What is the main physical carcinogen?

Ionising radiation

3

What 3 ways could a physical carcinogen initiate cancer?

Chromosome translocation

Gene amplification

Oncogene activation

4

What causes the promotion of cancers?

Growth factors
Oncogenes

5

Describe the function of growth factors in promotion

Bind to cell membrane receptors

Stimulate activation of intracellular signal transduction pathways

Signal causes (further) oncogene activation and more GF and GFRs are synthesised



6

What is the difference between autocrine and paracrine stimulation?

Autocrine - growth factor binds to GFR on it's own cell - further stimulates it's own cell

Paracrine - growth factor binds to another cells receptor and stimulates that cell

7

What do tumour suppressor genes normally control?

DNA repair
Apoptosis
Differentiation

8

What is the main tumour suppressor gene?

G1/S checkpoint control gene

9

Describe the process of invasion and metastasis

Tumour invades adjacent tissue through basement membrane

Moves into ECM/CT/surrounding tissue

Invades blood vessels - intravasation

Extravasation in distant organ/tissue - cells are 'arrested'

Tumour forms - metastasis

10

For what reason must the extracellular matrix be broken down for tumour growth to occur?

To allow angiogenesis to take place

Tumour needs a blood supply so blood vessels must form

11

Growth factor orientated treatment targets what stage of the cancer process?

Promotion

12

Describe how cancer cells are able to hide from our immune system?

T cells have PD1 receptor

Tumour cells have the ligand for this - PDL-1 on their surface

Interaction of these suppresses T cell attack

By blocking PD1 or PDL-1, we can cause an immune response