Flashcards in Outline of disease process Deck (12):
What are the 3 types of carcinogens, responsible for the initiation stage of cancer?
What is the main physical carcinogen?
What 3 ways could a physical carcinogen initiate cancer?
What causes the promotion of cancers?
Describe the function of growth factors in promotion
Bind to cell membrane receptors
Stimulate activation of intracellular signal transduction pathways
Signal causes (further) oncogene activation and more GF and GFRs are synthesised
What is the difference between autocrine and paracrine stimulation?
Autocrine - growth factor binds to GFR on it's own cell - further stimulates it's own cell
Paracrine - growth factor binds to another cells receptor and stimulates that cell
What do tumour suppressor genes normally control?
What is the main tumour suppressor gene?
G1/S checkpoint control gene
Describe the process of invasion and metastasis
Tumour invades adjacent tissue through basement membrane
Moves into ECM/CT/surrounding tissue
Invades blood vessels - intravasation
Extravasation in distant organ/tissue - cells are 'arrested'
Tumour forms - metastasis
For what reason must the extracellular matrix be broken down for tumour growth to occur?
To allow angiogenesis to take place
Tumour needs a blood supply so blood vessels must form
Growth factor orientated treatment targets what stage of the cancer process?