Chronic inflammation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chronic inflammation Deck (29):
1

What are the major immune cells involved in chronic inflammation?

Lymphocytes
Plasma cells
Macrophages
Natural killer cells

2

What is the functions of B lymphocytes in chronic inflammation?

Differentiate into plasma cells - produce antibodies against any pathogens

Act with macrophages - antigen presentation

Differentiate into memory B cells

3

What is the function of T cells in chronic inflammation?

Produce cytokines - attracts and activates macrophages and attracts other immune cells

Produce interferons - antiviral + attracts other cells

Cytotoxic T cells - damage/lyse other cells and destroys pathogen

4

What type of immunity do Natural killer cells correspond to?

Innate

5

Describe what macrophages do at the site of chronic inflammation.

Remove debris

Present antigens (for B cells)

Phagocytose or degranulate

Produce interferons + other chemicals

6

Aside from immune cells, what other cells are involved with chronic inflammation?

Fibroblasts

(+ osteoblasts in bone healing)

7

What do fibroblasts do?

Produce collagen protein for healing process

8

What can cause chronic inflammation?

Autoimmunity

Persistent infection/prolonged exposure to pathogens/toxins

Exogenous substances (sutures, splinters, glass etc.)

Endogenous substances that are not easily phagocytosed

9

Why would chronic inflammation arise from acute inflammation?

Large volume of damage

Unable to remove debris

= Unable to resolve the acute inflammation so becomes chronic

10

What is angiogenesis?

Formation of blood vessels

11

What is the purpose of granulation tissue formation?

Patches tissue defects

Replaces dead/necrotic tissue

Contracts and pulls together

12

Describe the sequence of events that take place with granulation tissue formation.

Angiogenesis of inflammatory mass

Plasma proteins, macrophages, fibroblasts gain access

Fibroblasts lay down collagen to repair damaged tissue, replacing inflammatory exudate

This forms granulation tissue

13

What negatives are associated with granulation tissue formation?

Scarring

Fibrosis can lead to other health problems

Can progress to chronic inflammation - acne etc

14

What is the body's response, when it can't phagocytose something, for example, a splinter?

Granulomatous inflammation

(formation of granuloma)

15

Granulomatous inflammations are associated with what type of hypersensitivity reaction?

Type IV

16

Describe (in basics) what granulomatous inflammation is.

Macrophages walling off an indigestible antigen

17

What cells are involved in granulomatous inflammation?

Macrophages (+ giant cells)

Neutrophils

Eosinophils

18

What are giant cells made from?

Fused macrophages

19

What are some examples of giant cells?

Langhans type

Foreign body type

Silicone associated

Warthin-Finkeldy type

20

What are the characteristics of Langhans type giant cells?

Classically found in TB

Nuclei ring round the outer edges of the cell

Large eosinophilic cytoplasm

21

Foreign body type giant cells are associated with what type of tissue?

Pyogenic (pus forming) granulation tissue

22

What is different in how Warthin-Finkeldy type and Langhans type look?

Langhans - nuclei on outer edges of cell

W-F - central cluster of nuclei

23

What are some examples of infectious granulomatous diseases?

Syphilis

Leprosy

Tuberculosis

24

What are examples of Non-infectious granulomatous diseases?

Rheumatoid disease

Sarcoidosis

Crohn's disease

25

Describe the process of wound healing.

1) Injury > blood clotting > acute inflammation > fibrin produced

2) Growth factors + cytokines

3) Angiogenesis + Granulation tissue formation

4) Phagocytosis of fibrin

5) Fibroblasts move in > collagen

6) Contraction of scar

7) Re-epithelialisation

26

What vitamins are important in the wound healing process?

C and A

27

Bone healing is similar to that of tissue healing, except another main cell type is involved. What is it?

Osteoblasts

(+ osteoclasts etc)

28

How do cells signal that they want angiogenesis to take place?

Hypoxic cells release Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that stimulates proliferation

Enzyme secretion aids process

Leads to vascularisation of damaged tissue

29

What factors impair wound healing?

Dirty, gaping wound, large heamatoma

Poorly nourished, lack of vitamins C and A

Abnormal CHO metabolism, diabetes, corticosteroid therapy

Inhibition of angiogenesis