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Biology Test #2 > Bacteria > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bacteria Deck (26)
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1

Bacteria

Single cell organisms
Able to grow, repair themselves, feed, and breathe
Prokaryotic

2

Prokaryotic cells

Small, primitive cells
No nucleus
No membrane-bound organelles(internal compartments)

3

5 kingdom

Kingdom monera

4

6 kingdom

Kingdom eubacteria
Kingdom archaebacteria

5

Shapes of bacteria cells

Coccus (round)
Bacillus (rod-shaped)
Spirilles (spiral)

6

Reproduction in monerans

Binary fission and conjugation

7

Binary fission

Cell replicates it’s DNA and splits in 2. Results are 2 daughter cells that are genetically identical to parent cell

8

Conjugation

2 cells pair up. One transfers some of its DNA to other cell. Results are the recipient is a genetic mixture of the 2 cells.

9

Autotrophs

Make their own food (organic molecules) from inorganic substances
Eg. Photosynthesis

10

Glucose

Can be used to store energy or converted into other types of organic molecules (starch, protein, vitamins, DNA)

11

Chemosynthesis

Similar to photosynthesis
Chemical energy rather than light is used to make glucose

12

Heterotrophs

Can’t make their own food, must feed off of others.

13

Types of heterotrophs

Saprophytes
Decomposers
Parasites

14

Saprophytes

Absorb organic molecules from their surrounding

15

Decomposers

Release digestive enzymes into their surrounding. These break down large organic molecules.
(Recycle)

16

Parasites

Feed off of a living host cell

17

Ways of extracting energy from food molecules

Cellular respiration (aerobic metabolism)

Fermentation (a aerobic metabolism)

18

Cellular respiration (aerobic metabolism)

Uses oxygen to break down glucose and other organic molecules. (releases useful energy from food molecules that could be used to power cell activities)

19

Equation for cellular respiration

Opposite of photosynthesis

20

Fermentation (anaerobic metabolism)

Can break down food molecules without oxygen.

21

Disadvantages of fermentation

1. Produces far less energy than cellular respiration
2. Creates toxic end products such as ethanol (alcohol), acetic acid, or lactic acid

22

Obligate aerobes

Organisms that must have oxygen in order to survive

23

Obligate anaerobes

Must live in an oxygen free environment

24

Facultative anaerobes

Can live with or without oxygen

25

Harmful bacteria

1. STD (chlamydia)
2. Food poisoning (salmonella)
3. Numerous other diseases (plague)

26

Helpful bacteria

Decomposers
Produces of food
Nitrogen fixation (crops)
Digestive bacteria