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Flashcards in Ballistics Deck (30)
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1

Types of gunshot wounds

Penetrating - bullet enters and becomes lodged in the body
Perforating - bullet enters and goes all the way through the body

2

Ballistics

energy created and dissipated by the object into surrounding tissues

3

energy within a projectile is dependent on:

velocity, weight, distance, deformation, fragmentation, type of tissue struck

4

Contact Range

when a gun is held against the skin's surface
searing of the edges of the wound secondary to flame/hot glasses

5

Intermediate Range is characterised by:

tattooing on skin - fragments and non burned gunpowder penetrating skin
Stippling - fragments abrade the skin but don't penetrate the skin

6

Intermediate (distant) range

no gunpowder hitting the skin, only the bullet

7

Kinetic Energy

KE = 1/2 MV squared
greater the speed, greater the damage

8

Primary Damage

crushing and laceration of tissues as the bullet impacts and pushes its way through
a permanent cavity or tunnel is created

9

Secondary Damage

temporary cavitation occurs as shockwaves exerted outwards from the bullets trajectory
temporary vacuum causing internal burns

10

Tertiary Damage

the bullet may create multiple fragments by impacting into and shattering bone

11

Treatment of ballistics

stop visible haemorrhage, monitor and consider spnial, IV access and fluid, VSS

12

High order explosions

produce a defining supersonic over-pressurisation shock wave

13

Low order explosions

create a subsonic explosion wave

14

Factors that affect severity of blast injuries

magnitude of the blast, composition of explosive, environment of the blast, distance between victim and blast, structural collapse, available medical resources, triage efficiency

15

spalling

shock wave moving between tissues of different densities

16

Implosion

entrapped gases contained in hollow organs compressing and then expanding to rupture

17

shearing

tissues of different densities respond differently to moving at different speeds

18

irreversible work

forces exceeding tensile strength of the tissue

19

Primary blast injuries

unique to HE, results of the over-pressurization wave

20

secondary blast injuries

struck by falling debris

21

tertiary blast injuries

pts thrown by blast wind

22

quaternary blast injuries

all explosion related injuries, illnesses or diseases not cue to primary, secondary or tertiary

23

most common injuries

TBI and concussion. tympanic membrane rupture, middle ear damage, abdo haemorrhage and organ perforation, blast lung

24

Blast lung patho

tearing of lung tissue - oedema, haemorrhage
lungs show lacerations and have increased weight due to tearing leading to V/Q mismatch

25

Signs and symptoms of blast lung

tachypnoea, hypoxia, cyanosis, apnoea, wheezing, reduced breath sounds, haemoptysis, cough, chest pain, dyspnoea, haemodynamic instability

26

treatment of blast lung

high flow O2, CPAP, ETT, fluid

27

common trauma in secondary blast injuries

blunt and penetrating to head, neck, chest, abdo, extremities
fractures
soft tissue trauma
traumatic amputations

28

common trauma in tertiary blast injuries

head injuries and fractured skull
fractured long bones

29

common trauma in quaternary blast injuries

burns, head injury, asthma and COPD, resp problems, angina, hypertension, crush injuries

30

management of blast injuries

DANGERS
promote safety, calm, efficiency, hope