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Flashcards in Toxicology and Toxinology Deck (21)
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1

What is a poison?

Any substance capable of producing an undesirable response in a biological system seriously affecting function or causing death

2

What is a toxin?

A naturally produced poison

3

What is a toxicant?

Produced by humans or a by product of human activities

4

Toxicity

Amount of toxin under defined conditions that will result in biological damge

5

Half life

amount of time required for half the poison to be eliminated from the body

6

Physiological half life

amount of time required for half the poison to be removed from the body

7

Part per million (ppm)

amount of toxicant in another substance

8

LD50

dose that is lethal for 50% of the population

9

Evenomation is

process of venom being injected into the body by a snake, arachnid, insect, marine life or other nasty creepy crawly

10

Clinical syndromes of snake bites

coagulophathy, neurotoxicity, myotoxicity, renal impairment, local reactions

11

Severe evonomation can lead to:

dizziness, difficulty breathing, loss of consciousness, hypotension

12

Signs and Symptoms of snake bites

1 or 2 small puncture wounds approx 1 cm apart
Bleeding and venom residue at site
Pain, swelling and redness

13

Non-specific systemic symptoms:

nausea and vomiting, headache, abdo pain, diarrhoea, diaphoresis

14

Coagulopathy

Procoagulants: potent pro-thrombin activator that converts prothrombin to thrombin which leads to massive fibrinogen degradation

15

Presynaptic Toxins

depletion of pre-synaptic vesicles and prevention of vesicle recycling leads to flaccid muscle paralysis and catecholamine release
competitively blocks postsynaptic ACh receptors leading to flaccid paralysis

16

Myotoxicity

Affects muscles with local or generalised tenderness and weakness which may lead to rhabdo

17

Signs and symptoms of redback spider bite

local symptoms: sharp transient pain, increased pain at site radiating to local lymph nodes, local sweating
systemic effects: tachycardia, nausea and vomiting, dizziness and fainting, muscle weakness and spasms, remote pain

18

Treatment of redback spider bite

DO NOT PRESSURE IMMOBILISE

19

Sydney Funnel Web Spider bite

gross muscle twitching, catecholamine release, glandular hypersecretion due to development of uncontrollable spontaneous APs in skeletal and autonomic muscle, tachycardia and hypertension, anxiety

20

Treatment of funnel web bite

pressure immobilisation

21

blue Ringed Octopus

Blockade of nerve conduction cause by Textrodotoxin which prevents AP propogation by Na channel blockage leading to paralysis
Treat with pressure immobilisation