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Flashcards in Thoracic Trauma Deck (37)
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1

Pleural Membranes

Parietal - attached to thoracic wall
Visceral - attached to lungs

2

Pleural space

Negative intrapleural pressure

3

Rib fractures signs and symptoms

pain that increases with coughing and ventilation
diagnosis based on clinical findings

4

Management of rib fractures

analgesia and anatomical splinting for comfort

5

Flail Chest

3 or more ribs broken in 2 or more places
Signified by paradoxical movement
Associated with ventilatory insufficiency

6

Treatment of Flail Chest

Maintain oxygenation and venilation, issues with ventilation, analgesia

7

Sternal Fracture

Concerned with assoc injuries especially myocardial and other mediastinal injuries

8

Signs and Symptoms of Sternal Fracture

history of significant anterior chest trauma, tenderness, abnormal motion of sternal and crepitus

9

Treatment of Sternal Fracture

Analgesia, ECG, associated injuries

10

Diaphragmatic Injuries signs and symptoms

resp compromise, reduced venous return and CO, abdo pain, abdo may appear hollow, bowel sounds in chest

11

Treatment of diaphragmatic injuries

high concentration oxygen, nasogastric tube

12

Simple or closed pneumothorax

presence of air or gas in the pleural space caused by ruptured visceral or parietal pleura
destroys negative pressure of pleural space

13

Signs and symptoms of simple pneumothorax

chest pain, dyspneoa, tachypnoea

14

Treatment of simple pneumothorax

high flow oxygen, if small then watch and wait, if large use catheter to decompress

15

Open Pneumothorax

immediate life threat
disrupts negative pressure required for ventilation
air is sucked in and out of hole rather than lungs

16

Treatment for open pneumothorax

3 sided dressing

17

Signs and symptoms of Open Pneumothorax

obvious penetration, usually blood loss from wound, sucking sound, reduced air entry

18

Spontaneous Pneumothorax

common in young, tall, thin males
congenital weakness

19

Signs and symptoms of Spontaneous pneumothorax

sudden sharp onset of localised chest pain
resp distress
may or may or have reduced air entry

20

Tension Pneumothorax

ongoing escape of air into pleural space through 1 way flap
air enters during inspiration, but cannot escape
pushes mediastinum in opposite direction
intrathoracic pressure increases therefore exceeds pressure of venous return resulting in reduced CO and poor perfusion

21

Signs and symptoms of tension

reduced ipsilateral breath sounds, increased insp pressures, tracheal shift to opposite side, distension of neck veins, surgical emphysema

22

Late signs of tension

tachycardia, tachypnoea, hypoxic, hypotensive, low Spo2, ACS

23

Haemothorax

accumulation of blood in the pleural cavity usually resulting from a laceration of the lung or intercostal vessel
more than 300ml is life threatening

24

signs and symptoms of haemothorax

result of blunt or penetrating trauma
significant hypotension and tachycardia
absence of breath sounds
restlesness and anxiety
resp distress
excessive blood if tested for TnPT
flat neck veins
no tracheal deviation

25

Haemopneumothorax

accumulation of blood and air in pleural space
bubbles and blood in syringe

26

Pulmonary contusion

blood is leaking into alveoli and pulmonary interstitium
degree of resp effect is directly related to size of affected area

27

signs and symptoms of pulmonary contusion

tachypnoea, crackles and wheezes, hypoxia, ineffective cough, haemoptysis, chest wall abrasions

28

management of pulmonary contusion

good oxygenation with low pressure ventilation

29

Myocardial Contusion

can be bruised on surface of heart, full thickness injury, tear of myocardium

30

Signs and symptoms of Myocardial Contusion

chest pain similar to infarction, ECG abnormalities, tachycardia, palpitations