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Flashcards in Bank of 9 markers Deck (7)
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1

How far do you agree that changes to the carbon cycle will lead to increasingly severe storm events? [9]

Plan:
Intro:
-Changes are fluxes within carbon stores, such as photosynthesis, combustion and sequestration into the oceanic store from the atmosphere
-Human enhanced fluxes may lead to impacts on the water cycle which will increase the severity of storm events
1)
-A decrease in rates of photosynthesis and respiration due to the loss of natural carbon sinks such as the Amazon Rainforest will lead to impacts on the water cycle
-deforestation accounts for 30% of global CO2 emissions
-the fast carbon cycle will increase in rate in one direction (biosphere to atmosphere) as deforestation and wild fires release CO2, leading to an enhanced greenhouse effect which leads to a drier atmosphere developing
-with less vegetation on a regional scale, evapotranspiration rates will decrease so moisture levels in the atmosphere decrease and storm events will become both less frequent.
-However, due to increased temperature on a global scale, storm intensity will increase, meaning changes to the carbon cycle will lead to increasingly severe storm events on a global scale
2)
-the combustion of coal by humans is increasing the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere and is responsible for 44% of global emissions of GHGs
-this enhances the GHE and leads to global rise in temperatures. we have already seen a 0.85 degree C rise in global land and ocean surface temperature, but with some areas such as the Antarctic Peninsula seeing temperature of 14 degrees in 2012.
-this leads to increased rates of evaporation on the ocean's surface and warming of ocean currents which are responsible for producing large storm events and high winds.
-this change shows how combustion and its enhanced nature due to human activity will lead to more severe storms
3)
-ocean sequestration is a flux which allows the ocean to become a carbon sink, and therefore remove up to 50% of the carbon dioxide emitted through human activities
-therefore, the concentration of enhanced greenhouse gases will decrease, and the effects on global temperature will decrease and storm events will decrease in intensity.
-however, current levels of combustion mean rates of ocean sequestration cannot keep up, and global temperature rise occurs before carbon can be absorbed by the ocean, so carbon is actually released from the oceans due to surface warming, so a positive feedback loop develops.
Conclusion:
-Therefore, changes in the carbon cycle will lead to future changes in the water cycle as human activities have enhanced certain aspects of the carbon cycle and led to changes in global temperatures which govern oceanic and atmospheric temperatures which then determine the frequency and intensity of storms.

2

Assess the view that wind is the biggest factor in determining the impact of coastal energy. [9]

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3

With reference to one or more seismic event(s) that you have studied, assess the importance of past and present processes of development in understanding the impact of the associated hazards. [9]

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4

With reference to a specific river restoration project assess the extent to which it has an impact on water movement through the urban catchment. [9 marks]

Plan:

5

Assess the extent to which counter-urbanisation leads to social and economic change. [9]

Plan:

6

'Today, media places are as real as experienced places for many.'
Evaluate this statement. [9]

Plan:

7

Assess the impacts of social segregation and cultural diversity on contrasting urban areas you have studied. [9 marks]

Plan: