basic classification, major distinguishing features, genus, pathogenicity, clinical significance Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in basic classification, major distinguishing features, genus, pathogenicity, clinical significance Deck (36):
1

C. difficile

clostridium

anaerobic gram + bacilli

straight rods, spores

pathogenicity = toxin A and toxin B

clinical: diarrhea (antibiotic or nosocomial)

2

Neisseria menigitidis

neisseria

fastidious gram -

diplococci, oxidase +

pathogenicity = polysaccharide capsule, outer membrane protein

clinical: meningitis

3

C. botulinum

clostridium

anaerobic gram + bacilli

straight or curved rods, spores

pathogenicity = neurotoxin

clinical: botulism (flaccid paralysis)

4

neisseria gonorrhea

neisseria

fastidious gram -

diplococci, oxidase +

pathogenicity: pili, capsule, proteases, adherence proteins

clinical: gonorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis

5

E. coli

enterobacteriaceae

aerobic gram - fermenters

rods, oxidase -

pathogenicity = endotoxins, exotoxins, capsule, pili

clinical= meningitis in newborns, UTIs, GI infection

6

Listeria monocytogenes

listeria

aerobic gram + bacilli

single or short chain rods, NONbranching, motile

catalase +

pathogenicity = hemolysin

clinical: gastroenteritis, meningitis/encephalitis

in pregnancy can cause abortions, stillbirth, preterm

7

C. perfringens

clostridium

anaerobic gram + bacilli

box car shaped rods (blunt ends), spores

pathogenicity = alpha toxin, enterotoxins

clinical: gas gangrene, diarrhea (bloody = acute necrotizing GI infection)

8

peptostreptococcus spp

peptostreptococcus

anaerobic gram + bacilli

elongated cocci, NONspore forming

pathogenicity is unknown

clinical = mixed anaerobic and aerobic bacterial infections including cutaneous, respiratory, oral, female pelvic

9

C. diptheriae

corynebacterium

aerobic gram + bacilli

rods, NONbranching

catalase +

pathogenicity = diptheria toxin

clinical: diptheria (pharyngeal)

10

Group A strep (S. pyogenes)

streptococcus

aerobic gram + cocci

cocci in PAIRS and CHAINS

catalase -

B hemolytic

pathogenicity = streptolysin O & S

clinical: pharyngitis, necrotizing fasciitis, rheumatic fever, streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS)

11

Salmonella spp

enterobacteriaceae

aerobic gram - fermenter

rods, oxidase -

pathogenicity = adhesion proteins, survival in phagocytes, dissemination to other tissues

clinical: GI infection, bacteremia

12

Proteus spp

enterobacteriaceae

aerobic gram - fermenter

rods, oxidase -

pathogenicity = endotoxins, exotoxins, capsules, adhesion proteins

clinical: UTIs, nosocomial infections, blood infections

13

Vibrio cholerae

vibrio

aerobic gram - fermenter

rods, oxidase +

pathogenicity: somatic O antigens, exotoxins

clinical: cholera (GI)

14

moraxella catarrhalis

moraxella

aerobic gram - non-fermenter

diplococci, oxidase +

pathogenicity: uncertain; cell envelope adhesion factors

clinical: CAP

15

enterococci

streptococci

aerobic gram + cocci

cocci in PAIRS, CHAINS

catalase -

NON-hemolytic

pathogenicity = surface adhesins

clinical: UTIs, endocarditis, nosocomial vanco-resistant enterococcus

16

A. israelii

actinomyces

anaerobic gram + bacilli

beaded, irregular staining on gram stain

branching, filamentous bacilli

pathogenicity = unknown

clinical = oral/cervicofacial infections, pelvic infections (IUD)

17

C. jeikeium

corynebacterium

aerobic gram + bacilli

rods, NONbranching

catalase +

pathogenicity = unknown

clinical = foreign body infections

18

C. tetani

clostridium

anaerobic gram + bacilli

straight rods, spores

pathogenicity = tetanus toxin

clinical: tetanus

19

Pseudomonas aerigunosa

Pseudomonas

aerobic gram - NONfermenter

slender bacilli, oxidase +, metallic sheen, grape-like color

pathogenicity = exotoxin A, endotoxins

clinical: otitis externa, pneumonia in CF, ventilator acquired pneumonia, UTIs

20

S. epidermis

coagulase - staphylococci

aerobic gram + cocci

cocci in CLUSTERS

catalase +

pathogenicity = biofilm production

clinical= nosocomial blood stream infections associated with IV catheters, prosthetic material infections

21

S. pneumoniae

streptococcus

aerobic gram + cocci

cocci in PAIRS/CHAINS

catalase -

alpha hemolytic

pathogenicity = polysccharide capsule

clinical = CAP, otitis media, conjunctivitis, meningitis

22

Haemophilus influenzae

haemophilus

fastidious gram -

coccobacilli or short rods, satellite, oxidase +

pathogenicity = polysaccharide capsule, outer membrane protein

clinical = meningitis, epiglottitis, conjunctivitis, otitis media, pneumonia

23

S. aureus

Staphylococcus

aerobic gram + cocci

cocci in CLUSTERS

catalase +

pathogenicity = toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST1), enterotoxins

clinical: skin and soft tissue infections, necrotizing fasciitis, osteomyelitis, endocarditis, toxic shock syndrome, CF pneumonia, diarrhea

24

S. mitis

streptococcus

aerobic gram + cocci

cocci in pairs/chains

catalase -

alpha hemolytic

pathogenicity = polysaccharide capsule

clinical = native valve endocarditis, bacteremia

25

Strep. agalactiae (group B strep)

streptococcus

aerobic gram + cocci

cocci in pairs/chains

catalase -

Beta hemolytic

pathogenicity = polysaccharide capsule

clinical = early onset neonatal disease (pneumonia, sepsis), late onset neonatal disease (meningitis, sepsis)

26

Bacteroides fragilis

bacteroides

anaerobic gram -

straight bacilli, pale staining

pathogenicity = capsules, endotoxins, enzymes

clinical = abscesses throughout body, bacteremia, aspirational pneumonia

27

Enterobacter spp

enterobacteriaceae

aerobic gram - fermenter

rods, oxidase -

pathogenicity = endotoxins, exotoxins, capsule

clinical = UTIs, nosocomial, blood infections

28

M. pneumonia

mycoplasma

non gram staining bacteria

no cell wall, need special growth media

pathogenicity = polyclonal T cell and B cell activators, trigger formation of cold agglutinins (CLUMP RBCs)

clinical = atypical pneumonia, dermatologic involvement, cardiac and neuro complications

29

Chlamydia trachomatis

obligate intracellular bacteria

non-cultivable, requires living cells

pathogenicity = complicated intracellular lifecycle, inhibits phagosome/lysosome fusion

clinical = urethritis, epididymitis, proctitis, cervicitis, PID, conjunctivitis, lymphogranuloma venereum

30

genital mycoplasma (M. hominis, M. genitalium)

non gram staining bacteria

no cell wall, need special growth medium

pathogenicity = resistant to B lactam antibiotics

clinical: non gonococcal urethritis in males

31

chlamydia psittaci

obligate intracellular bacteria

non-cultivable as requires livings cells

pathogenicity = vertebrate vector (birds)

clinical = atypical pneumonia

32

Helicobacter pylori

spirochetes

gram -

pathogenicity = acid resistance, establishes residence in stomach

clinical significance = duodenal and gastric ulcers

33

mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)

acid fast bacilli

non-spore forming, non-motile

Ziehl-Neelsen stain needed

slow growing, fastidious growth requirements

pathogenicity = inhibition of lysosome-phagosome fusion

clinical = pulmonary disease, disseminated infection in AIDS patients, opportunistic in immune compromised patients

34

Treponema pallidum

spirochete

CANNOT gram stain

tightly wound slender coils with pointed ends

pathogenicity = lack of proteins on outer membrane of cell wall, antigenic variation

clinical = primary syphilis (painless chancre) ; secondary syphilis (myalgia, headache, fever, rash); tertiary syphilis (neurosyphilis i.e general paralysis), Cv syphilis and congenital syphilis (facial and tooth abnormalities)

35

Rickettsia rickettsii

obligate intracellular bacteria

small and gram -

growth requires living cells

zoonotic infections caused by ticks, flease, mites

pathogenicity = tick vector and cell to cell spread (hundreds of contagious epithelial cells are infected)

clinical = rocky mountain spotted fever (fever and rash)

36

mycobacterium tuberculosis

acid fast bacilli

non spore forming, non motile

Ziehl-Neelsen stain required due to waxy outer membrane

slow growing

fastidious growth requirements

pathogenicity = survive and multiply in alveolar macrophages, carried to lymphatics and can start other foci of infection

clinical = primary pulmonary disease, reactivation disease, disseminated disease