IDMM Week 3 PBL Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in IDMM Week 3 PBL Deck (49):
1

lesion

any abnormality involving any tissue or organ due to any disease or any injury

2

rash

a change in the SKIN which affects its color, appearance, or texture

3

primary lesion

initial lesion that characterizes a condition

4

secondary lesion

modification by regression or trauma of a primary lesion (i.e scab)

5

exanthems

skin rashes
eruptive epidermal lesions

6

enanthems

lesions on internal epithelial surfaces (i.e oral cavity)

7

what do macules look like

change in surface COLOR

no elevation or depression (NONPALPABLE)
ill defined
no change in texture

**1 cm or less

8

what can cause macular rashes

measles
mumps
rubella
5th disease
CMV
EBV
dengue
adenovirus

9

what does a patch look like

large macule

nonpalpable, maybe some wrinkle

**larger than 1 cm

10

what does a papule look like

circumscribed
solid ELEVATION
no visible fluid

**1 cm or less

11

what diseases can cause a papular rash

enterovirus

HPV (warts)

12

what does a plaque look like

broad papule
elevation, plateau like

**1cm

13

what does a nodule look like

similar to a papule but extends DEEPER

14

what does a vesicle look like

circumscribed
FLUID containing
ELEVATED

**less than 1cm

may have erythematous margins

15

what diseases can cause vesicular rashes

HSV 1/2
VZV
enterovirus
coxsackie virus

16

what does a pustule look like

it is a type of VESICLE
small elevation
contains CLOUDY/PURULENT material
**necrotic inflammation cells

17

what causes putstules

bacteria

18

what does a petechial rash look like

small hemorrhage beneath the epidermis

19

what causes petechial rash

coxsackievirus
rocky mountain spotted fever
N. meningitidis

20

what is an ulcer

CONVEX

discontinuity of skin

21

what is a blister

collection of fluid under the top layer of skin

can contain serum/plasma, water, pus, blood

22

what disease does the VZV virus cause

chicken pox

23

what does VZV infection/chickenpox look like

widespread VESICLES with red base appearing as "dew on a rose petal" rash

spreads CENTRIFUGALLY

24

what disease does HSV cause?

herpes

25

what does herpes infection look like

VESICULAR lesions in mouth/eye or genital/perianal regions

26

what diseases does coxsackievirus cause

herpangina
hand, foot and mouth disease

27

what does coxsackievirus infection look like

red oropharynx VESICLES

vesicles on h/f/m

28

what does smallpox infection look like

MACULES form first in the head then later in the extremities, becoming pus filled VESICLES then crusts

29

what does molluscum contagiosum look like

small pink skin tumors with central cimple often on trunk and anogenital regions

30

what does rubella infection look like

MACULOPAPULAR RASH

flate red area on skin covered by small pumps beginning in face and spreading to extremities

31

what does measles infection look like

starts at head and progresses to feet, disappearing in the order it appears

PALATAL PETECHIAE

32

what does infection with the human herpes viridae virus (HHV6) look like

causes "roseola"

in infants, is a rash on the trunk

33

what disease is caused by parvovirus B19

erythema infectiosum

34

what does parvovirus B19/erythema infectiosum infection look like

"slapped cheek" appearance

35

what disease causing rash is caused by GBS (S. pyogenes)

scarlet fever

36

what does scarlet fever look like

"sandpaper" rash

begins on trunk and spreads outwards

37

what disease is caused by R. rickettsii

rocky mountain spotted fever

38

what does R. rickettsii/rocky mountain spotted fever look like

MACULOPAPULAR rash on PALMS and SOLES spreading proximally to trunk

39

what disease is caused by R. prowazekii

epidemic typhus

40

what does typhus rash look like

spares palms, soles and face

41

what disease is caused by B. burgdorferi

Lyme disease

42

what does B. burgdorferi/lyme disease infection look like

erythema chronicum migrans

spreading annular RED LESION surrounding clear bite mark

43

what type of rash is characteristic of secondary syphilis

MACULOPAPULAR on palms and soles

44

what disease is cause by salmonella typhi

typhoid fever

45

what does typhoid fever rash look like

sparse rose spots and petechial lesions

46

mechanism of fever

fever is due to an elevated set point

1. exogenous pyrogen binds to monocyte, macrophage or lymphocyte
2. causes release of endogenous pyrogens (cytokines TNF alpha, IL1, IFN-gamma)
3. endogenous pyrogens bind to endothelial cells near PREOPTIC HYPOTHALAMUS in leaky circumventricular organ (OVLT)
4. endothelial cells synthesize prostaglandin E2 and NO
5. PGE2 diffuses into preoptic hypothalamus and decreases the firing rate of warm sensitive neurons, increases the firing rate of cold sensitive neurons
6. this increases the set point

47

which form of herpes can present as encephalitis in neonates

HSV2

48

which bacteria and viruses may cause meningitis in neonates

1.bacterial
E. coli
GBS
Listeria monocytogenes

2. viral (more common)
enteroviruses
HSV
CMV

49

which bacteria and viruses can cause encephalitis in neonates

1. bacteria
mycoplasma pneumoniae
syphilis
listeria
TB
salmonella typhi

2. viruses (more common)
HSV
measles
mumps
rabies
arboviruses
CMV