Basic Concepts and Hydrocarbons Flashcards Preview

A Level Chemistry Year 1 > Basic Concepts and Hydrocarbons > Flashcards

Flashcards in Basic Concepts and Hydrocarbons Deck (192)
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1

What is a functional group?

A group of atoms responsible for the characteristic reactions of a molecule

2

What does nomenclature mean?

Naming organic compounds

3

How many bonds to carbon form?

4

4

What is the functional groups of alcohols?

-OH

5

What is the functional group of carboxylic acids?

-COOH

6

What is the functional group of alkenes?

-C=C-

7

How many bonds do oxygen form?

2

8

What is the general formula?

An algebraic formula that can describe any member of a family of compounds

9

What is the general formula of alcohols?

CnH2n+1OH

10

What is a homologous series?

A family of compounds that have the same functional group and general formula

11

What do consecutive members of a homologous series differ by?

-CH2-

12

What is the general formula for alkanes?

CnH2n+2

13

What is the molecular formula?

Gives the actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule

14

What is the empirical formula?

Gives the simplest whole number ratio between atoms of each element in a compound

15

How do you find the empirical formula if given the molecular formula?

Divide the molecular formula by the smallest number of atoms for a given element in a molecule

16

What is the functional group of an ester?

-COO

17

What is the structural formula?

Shows the atoms carbon by carbon, with the attached hydrogen and functional groups

E.G. Ethane = CH3CH3

18

What is a displayed formula?

It shows how all the atoms are arranged, and all the bonds between them

19

What does the skeletal formula show?

Just the carbons, joined in a zig-zag to show where each bond ends

20

What is an aromatic compound?

An organic compound that contains a benzene ring

21

What are the 2 ways of drawing a benzene ring?

⏣ or ⌬

22

What is an aliphatic compound?

Compounds that contain carbon and hydrogen joined together in straight chains, branched chains or non-aromatic rings

23

What is an alicyclic compound?

An organic compound that contains carbon and hydrogen joined together in a non-aromatic ring (doesn't contain a benzene ring)

24

What is an alkyl group?

A hydrocarbon fragment with general formula CnH2n+1

25

What is a saturated compound?

A compound that only contains single carbon-carbon bonds (C-C)

26

What is an unsaturated compound?

A compound that can contain carbon-carbon double bonds, triple bonds or aromatic groups

27

In structural isomers, the …. is the same, but the …. is different?

In structural isomers the molecular formula is the same, but the structural formula is different

28

What are the 3 types of structural isomers?

Chain isomers
Positional isomers
Functional group isomers

29

What is a chain isomer?

Where the carbon skeleton is arranged differently- as a straight chain or branched in different ways

30

What is the difference in chemical properties for chain isomers?

The chemical properties are the same