Reactions and Calculations Flashcards Preview

A Level Chemistry Year 1 > Reactions and Calculations > Flashcards

Flashcards in Reactions and Calculations Deck (77)
Loading flashcards...
1

What are acids also known as?

Proton donors

2

Why are acids also called proton donors?

Because when mixed with water, they release Hydrogen ions (as Hydrogen ions have lost an electron, so they're just a proton)

3

What are bases also known as?

Proton acceptors

4

Why are bases also called proton accepters?

Because they accept Hydrogen ions

5

What is an alkali?

A base that is soluble in water

6

What do alkalis release in a solution?

Hydroxide ions

7

What is HCl?

Hydrochloric Acid

8

What is H2SO4?

Sulfuric Acid

9

What is HNO3?

Nitric Acid

10

What is CH3COOH?

Ethanoic Acid

11

What is NaOH?

Sodium Hydroxide

12

What is KOH?

Potassium Hydroxide

13

What is NH3?

Ammonia

14

What's different about the reaction between an acid and water, or a base and water?

It's reversible so both the forwards and backwards reactions will be happening at the same time

15

What is H3O +?

A Hydronium ion (produced when strong acids react fully with water)

16

What is a strong acid/base?

An acid/base that almost completely ionises in water

17

What is a weak acid/base?

An acid/base that only partially ionises in water

18

Why do strong acids completely ionise in water?

Very little of the reverse reaction occurs, meaning nearly all the acid will dissociate (or ionise) in water and so nearly all the H+ ions are released

19

Why do strong bases completely ionise in water?

They favour the forwards reaction, so nearly all the bases dissociates in water and lots of OH- ions are released

20

Why do weak acids only partially ionise in water?

They favour the backwards reaction, and so only a small amount of the acid will dissociate in water and only a few H+ ions are released

21

Why do weak bases only partially ionise in water?

They favour the backwards reaction, and so only a small amount of the base dissociates in water and only a few OH- ions are released

22

Acid + Base = ?

Salt + Water

23

Metal + Acid = ?

Salt + Hydrogen

24

Metal Oxide + Acid = ?

Salt + Water

25

Metal Hydroxide + Acid = ?

Salt + Water

26

What is a salt?

A compound formed when the Hydrogen in the acid molecule is replaced by a positive ion (metal ion or ammonium ions)

27

What type of reaction is an Acid + Base reaction?

A neutralisation reaction

28

Are Metal Hydroxides normally alkalis or bases?

Alkalis

29

Metal Carbonate + Acid = ?

Salt + Carbon Dioxide + Water

30

What does a solid salt consist of?

A lattice of positive and negative ions (and water in some)