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A Level Chemistry Year 1 > Electronic Structure > Flashcards

Flashcards in Electronic Structure Deck (124)
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1

What is the number given to each shell called?

Principal quantum number

2

What can be said about the energy and principal quantum number when a shell gets further away from the nucleus?

The higher it's energy and the larger it's principal quantum number is

3

What are shells divided into?

Sub-shells

4

What are the 4 types of sub-shell?

S
P
D
F

5

What is an orbital?

A region of a sub-shell that contains a maximum of 2 electrons with opposite spins

6

What is spin?

A type of momentum possessed by an electron which can either be up or down

7

How many electrons can s sub-shells hold?

2

8

How many electrons can p sub-shells hold?

6

9

How many electrons can d sub-shells hold?

10

10

How many electrons can f sub-shells hold?

14

11

What can be said about the energy of orbitals in the same sub-shell?

They have the same energy

12

What is spin-pairing?

When there are 2 electrons in an orbital which spin in opposite directions

13

What shape are s-orbitals?

Spherical

14

What shape are p-orbitals?

Dumbbell shape

15

What is the formula for the number of electrons a shell can hold?

2n^2 (n being shell number)

16

What is electron configuration?

The number of electrons and how they're arranged

17

Why do 4s sub-shells fill first before 3d sub-shells?

4s sub-shells have a lower energy level

18

What did Werner Heisenberg came up with?

The theory that you cannot know the speed of an electron or it's exact position

19

What was Heisenberg's theory called?

Uncertainty principle

20

How do ions form?

When atoms lose or gain electrons to become positively or negatively charged

21

What is electrostatic attraction?

A strong force between positive and negative ions

22

What is an ionic bond?

An electrostatic attraction between 2 oppositely charged ions

23

What is an ionic compound?

When oppositely charged ions form an ionic bond

24

What are ionic crystals?

Giant lattice (regular structure) of ions

25

How does a lattice form?

When each ion is electrostatically attracted in all directions to ions of the opposite charge

26

Describe the electrical conductivity of ionic compounds

Conduct electricity when molten or dissolved, but not when solid

27

Why do ionic compounds not conduct electricity when solid?

There are no mobile ions as they're fixed in position by strong metallic bonds

28

Why do ionic compounds conduct electricity when molten or dissolved?

They have ions that are free to move (mobile ions) so can carry charge

29

Describe the melting and boiling points of ionic compounds?

Have high melting and boiling points

30

Why do ionic compounds have high melting and boiling points?

The giant ionic lattices are held together by strong electrostatic forces (which takes lots of energy to overcome)